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  Ancient bacterial genomes reveal a high diversity of Treponema pallidum Strains in early Modern Europe

Majander, K., Pfrengle, S., Kocher, A., Neukamm, J., du Plessis, L., Pla-Díaz, M., et al. (2020). Ancient bacterial genomes reveal a high diversity of Treponema pallidum Strains in early Modern Europe. Current Biology, 30(19): 2020.07.058, pp. 3788-3803.e10. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.058.

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(last seen Nov. 2020)

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 Creators:
Majander, Kerttu1, Author              
Pfrengle, Saskia, Author
Kocher, Arthur2, Author              
Neukamm, Judith, Author
du Plessis, Louis, Author
Pla-Díaz, Marta, Author
Arora, Natasha, Author
Akgül, Gülfirde, Author
Salo, Kati, Author
Schats, Rachel, Author
Inskip, Sarah, Author
Oinonen, Markku, Author
Valk, Heiki, Author
Malve, Martin, Author
Kriiska, Aivar, Author
Onkamo, Päivi, Author
González-Candelas, Fernando, Author
Kühnert, Denise2, Author              
Krause, Johannes3, Author              
Schuenemann, Verena J., Author
Affiliations:
1Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074310              
2tide, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2591691              
3MHAAM, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2541699              

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Free keywords: ancient DNA, pathogen evolution, Treponema pallidum, syphilis, yaws
 Abstract: Summary Syphilis is a globally re-emerging disease, which has marked European history with a devastating epidemic at the end of the 15th century. Together with non-venereal treponemal diseases, like bejel and yaws, which are found today in subtropical and tropical regions, it currently poses a substantial health threat worldwide. The origins and spread of treponemal diseases remain unresolved, including syphilis’ potential introduction into Europe from the Americas. Here, we present the first genetic data from archaeological human remains reflecting a high diversity of Treponema pallidum in early modern Europe. Our study demonstrates that a variety of strains related to both venereal syphilis and yaws-causing T. pallidum subspecies were already present in Northern Europe in the early modern period. We also discovered a previously unknown T. pallidum lineage recovered as a sister group to yaws- and bejel-causing lineages. These findings imply a more complex pattern of geographical distribution and etiology of early treponemal epidemics than previously understood.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020-08-13
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 27
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction

Results
- Geographical Origins and Osteological Analyses of Samples
- Authenticity Estimation of Ancient DNA and Genome Reconstruction
- Phylogenetic Analysis and Genetic Recombination
- Molecular Clock Dating
- Virulence Factor Analysis

Discussion
- Early Emergence of Syphilis in Europe
- Yaws-like Strains in Europe
- Old Hypotheses Revisited
- Outlook and Implications on Sampling Strategies

STAR★Methods
- Key Resources Table
- Resource Availability
-- Lead Contact
-- Materials Availability
-- Data and Code Availability
- Experimental Model and Subject Details
-- Ethical approvals
-- Description of archaeological contexts and sample selection
- Method Details
-- Sample processing
-- Reservoir effect correction of the CHS119 sample
-- Sampling and DNA extraction
-- Library preparation
-- Double-stranded DNA library preparation
-- Uracil-DNA Glycosylase (UDG) treated double-stranded DNA library preparation
-- Single-stranded DNA library preparation
-- Capture techniques
-- Sequencing
-- Read processing, mapping and variant calling
-- Genomic dataset and multisequence alignment
-- SNP quality assessment
-- Phylogenetic and recombination analysis
-- KM14-7 SNP analysis
-- Molecular clock dating
-- Robustness of molecular clock dating
-- Virulence analysis
- Quantification and Statistical Analysis
-- In silico screening
-- Phylogenetic analysis
-- Molecular clock test
-- Dating analysis
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.058
Other: shh2689
 Degree: -

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Title: Current Biology
  Other : Curr. Biol.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London, UK : Cell Press
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 30 (19) Sequence Number: 2020.07.058 Start / End Page: 3788 - 3803.e10 Identifier: ISSN: 0960-9822
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925579107