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  Population Properties of Compact Objects from the Second LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, The Virgo Collaboration, Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Abraham, S., Acernese, F., et al. (2021). Population Properties of Compact Objects from the Second LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 913(1): L7. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abe949.

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The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Author              
The Virgo Collaboration, Author              
Abbott, R., Author
Abbott, T. D., Author
Abraham, S., Author
Acernese, F., Author
Ackley, K., Author
Adams, A., Author
Adams, C., Author
Adhikari, R. X., Author
Adya, V. B., Author
Affeldt, C.1, Author              
Agathos, M., Author
Agatsuma, K., Author
Aggarwal, N., Author
Aguiar, O. D., Author
Aiello, L., Author
Ain, A., Author
Ajith, P., Author
Allen, G., Author
Allocca, A., AuthorAltin, P. A., AuthorAmato, A., AuthorAnand, S., AuthorAnanyeva, A., AuthorAnderson, S. B., AuthorAnderson, W. G., AuthorAngelova, S. V., AuthorAnsoldi, S., AuthorAntelis, J. M., AuthorAntier, S., AuthorAppert, S., AuthorArai, K., AuthorAraya, M. C., AuthorAreeda, J. S., AuthorArène, M., AuthorArnaud, N., AuthorAronson, S. M., AuthorArun, K. G., AuthorAsali, Y., AuthorAscenzi, S., AuthorAshton, G., AuthorAston, S. M., AuthorAstone, P., AuthorAubin, F., AuthorAufmuth, P.1, Author              AultONeal, K., AuthorAustin, C., AuthorAvendano, V., AuthorBabak, S., AuthorBadaracco, F., AuthorBader, M. K. M., AuthorBae, S., AuthorBaer, A. M., AuthorBagnasco, S., AuthorBaird, J., AuthorBall, M., AuthorBallardin, G., AuthorBallmer, S. W., AuthorBals, A., AuthorBalsamo, A., AuthorBaltus, G., AuthorBanagiri, S., AuthorBankar, D., AuthorBankar, R. S., AuthorBarayoga, J. C., AuthorBarbieri, C., AuthorBarish, B. C., AuthorBarker, D., AuthorBarneo, P., AuthorBarnum, S., AuthorBarone, F., AuthorBarr, B., AuthorBarsotti, L., AuthorBarsuglia, M., AuthorBarta, D., AuthorBartlett, J., AuthorBartos, I., AuthorBassiri, R., AuthorBasti, A., AuthorBawaj, M., AuthorBayley, J. C., AuthorBazzan, M., AuthorBecher, B. R., AuthorBécsy, B., AuthorBedakihale, V. M., AuthorBejger, M., AuthorBelahcene, I., AuthorBeniwal, D., AuthorBenjamin, M. G., AuthorBennett, T. F., AuthorBentley, J. D., AuthorBergamin, F.1, Author              Berger, B. K., AuthorBergmann, G.1, Author              Bernuzzi, S., AuthorBerry, C. P. L., AuthorBersanetti, D., AuthorBertolini, A., AuthorBetzwieser, J., AuthorBhandare, R., AuthorBhandari, A. V., AuthorBhattacharjee, D., AuthorBidler, J., AuthorBilenko, I. A., AuthorBillingsley, G., AuthorBirney, R., AuthorBirnholtz, O., AuthorBiscans, S., AuthorBischi, M., AuthorBiscoveanu, S., AuthorBisht, A.1, Author              Bitossi, M., AuthorBizouard, M. -A., AuthorBlackburn, J. K., AuthorBlackman, J., AuthorBlair, C. D., AuthorBlair, D. G., AuthorBlair, R. M., AuthorBlanch, O., AuthorBobba, F., AuthorBode, N.1, Author              Boer, M., AuthorBoetzel, Y., AuthorBogaert, G., AuthorBoldrini, M., AuthorBondu, F., AuthorBonilla, E., AuthorBonnand, R., AuthorBooker , P.1, AuthorBoom, B. A., AuthorBork, R., AuthorBoschi, V., AuthorBose, S., AuthorBossilkov, V., AuthorBoudart, V., AuthorBouffanais, Y., AuthorBozzi, A., AuthorBradaschia, C., AuthorBrady, P. R., AuthorBramley, A., AuthorBranchesi, M., AuthorBrau, J. E., AuthorBreschi, M., AuthorBriant, T., AuthorBriggs, J. H., AuthorBrighenti, F., AuthorBrillet, A., AuthorBrinkmann, M.1, Author              Brockill, P., AuthorBrooks, A. F., AuthorBrooks, J., AuthorBrown, D. D., AuthorBrunett, S., AuthorBruno, G., AuthorBruntz, R., AuthorBuikema, A., AuthorBulik, T., AuthorBulten, H. J., AuthorBuonanno, A.2, Author              Buscicchio, R., AuthorBuskulic, D., AuthorByer, R. L., AuthorCabero, M.3, Author              Cadonati, L., AuthorCaesar, M., AuthorCagnoli, G., AuthorCahillane, C., AuthorBustillo, J. Calderón, AuthorCallaghan, J. D., AuthorCallister, T. A., AuthorCalloni, E., AuthorCamp, J. B., AuthorCanepa, M., AuthorCannon, K. C., AuthorCao, H., AuthorCao, J., AuthorCarapella, G., AuthorCarbognani, F., AuthorCarney, M. F., AuthorCarpinelli, M., AuthorCarullo, G., AuthorCarver, T. L., AuthorDiaz, J. Casanueva, AuthorCasentini, C., AuthorCaudill, S., AuthorCavaglià, M., AuthorCavalier, F., AuthorCavalieri, R., AuthorCella, G., AuthorCerdá-Durán, P., AuthorCesarini, E., AuthorChaibi, W., AuthorChakravarti, K., AuthorChan, C. -L., AuthorChan, C., AuthorChandra, K., AuthorChanial, P., AuthorChao, S., AuthorCharlton, P., AuthorChase, E. A., AuthorChassande-Mottin, E., AuthorChatterjee, D., AuthorChattopadhyay, D., AuthorChaturvedi, M., AuthorChatziioannou, K., AuthorChen, A., AuthorChen, H. Y., AuthorChen, X., AuthorChen, Y., AuthorCheng, H. -P., AuthorCheong, C. K., AuthorChia, H. Y., AuthorChiadini, F., AuthorChierici, R., AuthorChincarini, A., AuthorChiummo, A., AuthorCho, G., AuthorCho, H. S., AuthorCho, M., AuthorChoate, S., AuthorChristensen, N., AuthorChu, Q., AuthorChua, S., AuthorChung, K. W., AuthorChung, S., AuthorCiani, G., AuthorCiecielag, P., AuthorCieślar, M., AuthorCifaldi, M., AuthorCiobanu, A. A., AuthorCiolfi, R., AuthorCipriano, F., AuthorCirone, A., AuthorClara, F., AuthorClark, E. N., AuthorClark, J. A., AuthorClarke, L., AuthorClearwater, P., AuthorClesse, S., AuthorCleva, F., AuthorCoccia, E., AuthorCohadon, P. -F., AuthorCohen, D. E., AuthorColleoni, M., AuthorCollette, C. G., AuthorCollins, C., AuthorColpi, M., AuthorConstancio, M., AuthorConti, L., AuthorCooper, S. J., AuthorCorban, P., AuthorCorbitt, T. R., AuthorCordero-Carrión, I., AuthorCorezzi, S., AuthorCorley, K. R., AuthorCornish, N., AuthorCorre, D., AuthorCorsi, A., AuthorCortese, S., AuthorCosta, C. A., AuthorCotesta, R.2, Author              Coughlin, M. W., AuthorCoughlin, S. B., AuthorCoulon, J. -P., AuthorCountryman, S. T., AuthorCouvares, P., AuthorCovas, P. B., AuthorCoward, D. M., AuthorCowart, M. J., AuthorCoyne, D. C., AuthorCoyne, R., AuthorCreighton, J. D. E., AuthorCreighton, T. D., AuthorCroquette, M., AuthorCrowder, S. G., AuthorCudell, J. R., AuthorCullen, T. J., AuthorCumming, A., AuthorCummings, R., AuthorCunningham, L., AuthorCuoco, E., AuthorCurylo, M., AuthorDal Canton, T. 2, AuthorDálya, G., AuthorDana, A., AuthorDaneshgaranBajastani, L. M., AuthorD'Angelo, B., AuthorDanilishin, S. L., AuthorD'Antonio, S., AuthorDanzmann, K.1, Author              Darsow-Fromm, C., AuthorDasgupta, A., AuthorDatrier, L. E. H., AuthorDattilo, V., AuthorDave, I., AuthorDavier, M., AuthorDavies, G. S., AuthorDavis, D., AuthorDaw, E. 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P., AuthorDrago, M., AuthorDriggers, J. C., AuthorDu, Z., AuthorDucoin, J. -G., AuthorDupej, P., AuthorDurante, O., AuthorD'Urso, D., AuthorDuverne, P. -A., AuthorDwyer, S. E., AuthorEaster, P. J., AuthorEddolls, G., AuthorEdelman, B., AuthorEdo, T. B., AuthorEdy, O., AuthorEffler, A., AuthorEichholz, J., AuthorEikenberry, S. S., AuthorEisenmann, M., AuthorEisenstein, R. A., AuthorEjlli, A., AuthorErrico, L., AuthorEssick, R. C., AuthorEstellés, H., AuthorEstevez, D., AuthorEtienne, Z. B., AuthorEtzel, T., AuthorEvans, M., AuthorEvans, T. M., AuthorEwing, B. E., AuthorFafone, V., AuthorFair, H., AuthorFairhurst, S., AuthorFan, X., AuthorFarah, A. M., AuthorFarinon, S., AuthorFarr, B., AuthorFarr, W. M., AuthorFauchon-Jones, E. J., AuthorFavata, M., AuthorFays, M., AuthorFazio, M., AuthorFeicht, J., AuthorFejer, M. M., AuthorFeng, F., AuthorFenyvesi, E., AuthorFerguson, D. L., AuthorFernandez-Galiana, A., AuthorFerrante, I., AuthorFerreira, T. A., AuthorFidecaro, F., AuthorFigura, P., AuthorFiori, I., AuthorFiorucci, D., AuthorFishbach, M., AuthorFisher, R. P., AuthorFishner, J. M., AuthorFittipaldi, R., AuthorFitz-Axen, M., AuthorFiumara, V., AuthorFlaminio, R., AuthorFloden, E., AuthorFlynn, E., AuthorFong, H., AuthorFont, J. A., AuthorForsyth, P. W. F., AuthorFournier, J. -D., AuthorFrasca, S., AuthorFrasconi, F., AuthorFrei, Z., AuthorFreise, A., AuthorFrey, R., AuthorFrey, V., AuthorFritschel, P., AuthorFrolov, V. V., AuthorFronzé, G. G., AuthorFulda, P., AuthorFyffe, M., AuthorGabbard, H. A., AuthorGadre, B.2, Author              Gaebel, S. M., AuthorGair, J.2, Author              Gais, J., AuthorGalaudage, S., AuthorGamba, R., AuthorGanapathy, D., AuthorGanguly, A., AuthorGaonkar, S. G., AuthorGaraventa, B., AuthorGarcía-Quirós, C., AuthorGarufi, F., AuthorGateley, B., AuthorGaudio, S., AuthorGayathri, V., AuthorGemme, G., AuthorGennai, A., AuthorGeorge, D., AuthorGeorge, J., AuthorGergely, L., AuthorGhonge, S., AuthorGhosh, Abhirup2, Author              Ghosh, Archisman, AuthorGhosh, S., AuthorGiacomazzo, B., AuthorGiacoppo, L., AuthorGiaime, J. A., AuthorGiardina, K. D., AuthorGibson, D. R., AuthorGier, C., AuthorGill, K., AuthorGiri, P., AuthorGlanzer, J., AuthorGleckl, A. E., AuthorGodwin, P., AuthorGoetz, E., AuthorGoetz, R., AuthorGohlke, N.1, Author              Goncharov, B., AuthorGonzález, G., AuthorGopakumar, A., AuthorGossan, S. E., AuthorGosselin, M., AuthorGouaty, R., AuthorGrace, B., AuthorGrado, A., AuthorGranata, M., AuthorGranata, V., AuthorGrant, A., AuthorGras, S., AuthorGrassia, P., AuthorGray, C., AuthorGray, R., AuthorGreco, G., AuthorGreen, A. C., AuthorGreen, R., AuthorGretarsson, E. M., AuthorGriggs, H. L., AuthorGrignani, G., AuthorGrimaldi, A., AuthorGrimes, E., AuthorGrimm, S. J., AuthorGrote, H., AuthorGrunewald, S.2, Author              Gruning, P., AuthorGuerrero, J. G., AuthorGuidi, G. M., AuthorGuimaraes, A. R., AuthorGuixé, G., AuthorGulati, H. K., AuthorGuo, Y., AuthorGupta, Anchal, AuthorGupta, Anuradha, AuthorGupta, P., AuthorGustafson, E. K., AuthorGustafson, R., AuthorGuzman, F., AuthorHaegel, L., AuthorHalim, O., AuthorHall, E. D., AuthorHamilton, E. Z., AuthorHammond, G., AuthorHaney, M., AuthorHanke, M. M., AuthorHanks, J., AuthorHanna, C., AuthorHannuksela, O. A., AuthorHansen, H., AuthorHansen, T. J., AuthorHanson, J., AuthorHarder, T., AuthorHardwick, T., AuthorHaris, K., AuthorHarms, J., AuthorHarry, G. M., AuthorHarry, I. W., AuthorHartwig, D., AuthorHasskew, R. K., AuthorHaster, C. -J., AuthorHaughian, K., AuthorHayes, F. J., AuthorHealy, J., AuthorHeidmann, A., AuthorHeintze, M. C., AuthorHeinze, J.1, Author              Heinzel, J., AuthorHeitmann, H., AuthorHellman, F., AuthorHello, P., AuthorHelmling-Cornell, A. F., AuthorHemming, G., AuthorHendry, M., AuthorHeng, I. S., AuthorHennes, E., AuthorHennig, J.-S.1, Author              Hennig , M. H.1, AuthorVivanco, F. Hernandez, AuthorHeurs, M.1, Author              Hild, S., AuthorHill, P., AuthorHines, A. S., AuthorHochheim , S.1, AuthorHofgard, E., AuthorHofman, D., AuthorHohmann, J. N., AuthorHolgado, A. M., AuthorHolland, N. A., AuthorHollows, I. J., AuthorHolmes, Z. J., AuthorHolt, K., AuthorHolz, D. E., AuthorHopkins, P., AuthorHorst, C., AuthorHough, J., AuthorHowell, E. J., AuthorHoy, C. G., AuthorHoyland, D., AuthorHuang, Y., AuthorHübner, M. T., AuthorHuddart, A. D., AuthorHuerta, E. A., AuthorHughey, B., AuthorHui, V., AuthorHusa, S., AuthorHuttner, S. H., AuthorHutzler, B. M., AuthorHuxford, R., AuthorHuynh-Dinh, T., AuthorIdzkowski, B., AuthorIess, A., AuthorImperato, S., AuthorInchauspe, H., AuthorIngram, C., AuthorIntini, G., AuthorIsi, M., AuthorIyer, B. R., AuthorJaberianHamedan, V., AuthorJacqmin, T., AuthorJadhav, S. J., AuthorJadhav, S. P., AuthorJames, A. L., AuthorJani, K., AuthorJanssens, K., AuthorJanthalur, N. N., AuthorJaranowski, P., AuthorJariwala, D., AuthorJaume, R., AuthorJenkins, A. C., AuthorJeunon, M., AuthorJiang, J., AuthorJohns, G. R., AuthorJones, A. W., AuthorJones, D. I., AuthorJones, J. D., AuthorJones, P., AuthorJones, R., AuthorJonker, R. J. G., AuthorJu, L., AuthorJunker, J.1, Author              Kalaghatgi, C. V., AuthorKalogera, V., AuthorKamai, B., AuthorKandhasamy, S., AuthorKang, G., AuthorKanner, J. B., AuthorKapadia, S. J., AuthorKapasi, D. P., AuthorKarathanasis, C., AuthorKarki, S., AuthorKashyap, R., AuthorKasprzack, M., AuthorKastaun, W.4, Author              Katsanevas, S., AuthorKatsavounidis, E., AuthorKatzman, W., AuthorKawabe, K., AuthorKéfélian, F., AuthorKeitel, D., AuthorKey, J. S., AuthorKhadka, S., AuthorKhalili, F. Y., AuthorKhan, I., AuthorKhan, S., AuthorKhazanov, E. A., AuthorKhetan, N., AuthorKijbunchoo, N., AuthorKim, C., AuthorKim, G. J., AuthorKim, J. C., AuthorKim, K., AuthorKim, W. S., AuthorKim, Y. -M., AuthorKimball, C., AuthorKing, P. J., AuthorKinley-Hanlon, M., AuthorKirchhoff, R.1, Author              Kissel, J. S., AuthorKleybolte, L., AuthorKlimenko, S., AuthorKnowles, T. D., AuthorKnyazev, E., AuthorKoch, P., AuthorKoehlenbeck, S.1, Author              Koekoek, G., AuthorKoley, S., AuthorKolstein, M., AuthorKomori, K., AuthorKondrashov, V., AuthorKontos, A., AuthorKoper, N.1, Author              Korobko, M., AuthorKorth, W. Z., AuthorKovalam, M., AuthorKozak, D. B., AuthorKrämer, C.1, Author              Kringel, V.1, Author              Krishnendu , N. V.1, AuthorKrólak, A., AuthorKuehn, G.1, Author              Kumar, A., AuthorKumar, P., AuthorKumar, Rahul, AuthorKumar, Rakesh, AuthorKuns, K., AuthorKwang, S., AuthorLackey, B. D., AuthorLaghi, D., AuthorLalande, E., AuthorLam, T. L., AuthorLamberts, A., AuthorLandry, M., AuthorLane, B. B., AuthorLang, R. N., AuthorLange, J., AuthorLantz, B., AuthorLanza, R. K., AuthorLa Rosa, I., AuthorLartaux-Vollard, A., AuthorLasky, P. D., AuthorLaxen, M., AuthorLazzarini, A., AuthorLazzaro, C., AuthorLeaci, P., AuthorLeavey, S.1, Author              Lecoeuche, Y. K., AuthorLee, H. M., AuthorLee, H. W., AuthorLee, J., AuthorLee, K., AuthorLehmann, J.1, Author              Leon, E., AuthorLeroy, N., AuthorLetendre, N., AuthorLevin, Y., AuthorLi, A., AuthorLi, J., AuthorLi, K. J. L., AuthorLi, T. G. F., AuthorLi, X., AuthorLinde, F., AuthorLinker, S. D., AuthorLinley, J. N., AuthorLittenberg, T. B., AuthorLiu, J.1, Author              Liu, X., AuthorLlorens-Monteagudo, M., AuthorLo, R. K. L., AuthorLockwood, A., AuthorLondon, L. T., AuthorLongo, A., AuthorLorenzini, M., AuthorLoriette, V., AuthorLormand, M., AuthorLosurdo, G., AuthorLough, J.1, Author              Lousto, C. O., AuthorLovelace, G., AuthorLück, H.1, Author              Lumaca, D., AuthorLundgren, A. P., AuthorMa, Y., AuthorMacas, R., AuthorMacInnis, M., AuthorMacleod, D. M., AuthorMacMillan, I. A. O., AuthorMacquet, A., AuthorHernandez, I. Magaña, AuthorMagaña-Sandoval, F., AuthorMagazzù, C., AuthorMagee, R. M., AuthorMajorana, E., AuthorMaksimovic, I., AuthorMaliakal, S., AuthorMalik, A., AuthorMan, N., AuthorMandic, V., AuthorMangano, V., AuthorMansell, G. L., AuthorManske, M., AuthorMantovani, M., AuthorMapelli, M., AuthorMarchesoni, F., AuthorMarion, F., AuthorMárka, S., AuthorMárka, Z., AuthorMarkakis, C., AuthorMarkosyan, A. S., AuthorMarkowitz, A., AuthorMaros, E., AuthorMarquina, A., AuthorMarsat, S., AuthorMartelli, F., AuthorMartin, I. W., AuthorMartin, R. M., AuthorMartinez, M., AuthorMartinez, V., AuthorMartynov, D. V., AuthorMasalehdan, H., AuthorMason, K., AuthorMassera, E., AuthorMasserot, A., AuthorMassinger, T. J., AuthorMasso-Reid, M., AuthorMastrogiovanni, S., AuthorMatas, A.2, Author              Mateu-Lucena, M., AuthorMatichard, F., AuthorMatiushechkina, M.1, Author              Mavalvala, N., AuthorMaynard, E., AuthorMcCann, J. J., AuthorMcCarthy, R., AuthorMcClelland, D. E., AuthorMcCormick, S., AuthorMcCuller, L., AuthorMcGuire, S. C., AuthorMcIsaac, C., AuthorMcIver, J., AuthorMcManus, D. J., AuthorMcRae, T., AuthorMcWilliams, S. T., AuthorMeacher, D., AuthorMeadors, G. D., AuthorMehmet, M.1, Author              Mehta, A. K.2, Author              Melatos, A., AuthorMelchor, D. A., AuthorMendell, G., AuthorMenendez-Vazquez, A., AuthorMercer, R. A., AuthorMereni, L., AuthorMerfeld, K., AuthorMerilh, E. L., AuthorMerritt, J. D., AuthorMerzougui, M., AuthorMeshkov, S., AuthorMessenger, C., AuthorMessick, C., AuthorMetzdorff, R., AuthorMeyers, P. M., AuthorMeylahn, F.1, Author              Mhaske, A., AuthorMiani, A., AuthorMiao, H., AuthorMichaloliakos, I., AuthorMichel, C., AuthorMiddleton, H., AuthorMilano, L., AuthorMiller, A. L., AuthorMiller, S., AuthorMillhouse, M., AuthorMills, J. C., AuthorMilotti, E., AuthorMilovich-Goff, M. C., AuthorMinazzoli, O., AuthorMinenkov, Y., AuthorMir, Ll. M., AuthorMishkin, A., AuthorMishra, C., AuthorMistry, T., AuthorMitra, S., AuthorMitrofanov, V. P., AuthorMitselmakher, G., AuthorMittleman, R., AuthorMo, G., AuthorMogushi, K., AuthorMohapatra, S. R. P., AuthorMohite, S. R., AuthorMolina, I., AuthorMolina-Ruiz, M., AuthorMondin, M., AuthorMontani, M., AuthorMoore, C. J., AuthorMoraru, D., AuthorMorawski, F., AuthorMoreno, G., AuthorMorisaki, S., AuthorMours, B., AuthorMow-Lowry, C. M., AuthorMozzon, S., AuthorMuciaccia, F., AuthorMukherjee, Arunava, AuthorMukherjee, D., AuthorMukherjee, Soma, AuthorMukherjee, Subroto, AuthorMukund, N.1, Author              Mullavey, A., AuthorMunch, J., AuthorMuñiz, E. A., AuthorMurray, P. G., AuthorNadji, S. L.1, Author              Nagar, A., AuthorNardecchia, I., AuthorNaticchioni, L., AuthorNayak, R. K., AuthorNeil, B. F., AuthorNeilson, J., AuthorNelemans, G., AuthorNelson, T. J. N., AuthorNery, M.1, Author              Neunzert, A., AuthorNg, K. Y., AuthorNg, S., AuthorNguyen, C., AuthorNguyen, P., AuthorNguyen, T., AuthorNichols, S. A., AuthorNissanke, S., AuthorNocera, F., AuthorNoh, M., AuthorNorth, C., AuthorNothard, D., AuthorNuttall, L. K., AuthorOberling, J., AuthorO'Brien, B. D., AuthorO'Dell, J., AuthorOganesyan, G., AuthorOgin, G. H., AuthorOh, J. J., AuthorOh, S. H., AuthorOhme, F.4, Author              Ohta, H., AuthorOkada, M. A., AuthorOlivetto, C., AuthorOppermann, P.1, Author              Oram, R. J., AuthorO'Reilly, B., AuthorOrmiston, R. G., AuthorOrmsby, N., AuthorOrtega, L. F., AuthorO'Shaughnessy, R., AuthorOssokine, S.2, Author              Osthelder, C., AuthorOttaway, D. J., AuthorOvermier, H., AuthorOwen, B. J., AuthorPace, A. E., AuthorPagano, G., AuthorPage, M. A., AuthorPagliaroli, G., AuthorPai, A., AuthorPai, S. A., AuthorPalamos, J. R., AuthorPalashov, O., AuthorPalomba, C., AuthorPan, H., AuthorPanda, P. K., AuthorPang, T. H., AuthorPankow, C., AuthorPannarale, F., AuthorPant, B. C., AuthorPaoletti, F., AuthorPaoli, A., AuthorPaolone, A., AuthorParker, W., AuthorPascucci, D., AuthorPasqualetti, A., AuthorPassaquieti, R., AuthorPassuello, D., AuthorPatel, M., AuthorPatricelli, B., AuthorPayne, E., AuthorPechsiri, T. C., AuthorPedraza, M., AuthorPegoraro, M., AuthorPele, A., AuthorPenn, S., AuthorPerego, A., AuthorPerez, C. J., AuthorPérigois, C., AuthorPerreca, A., AuthorPerriès, S., AuthorPetermann, J., AuthorPetterson, D., AuthorPfeiffer, H.2, Author              Pham, K. A., AuthorPhukon, K. S., AuthorPiccinni, O. J., AuthorPichot, M., AuthorPiendibene, M., AuthorPiergiovanni, F., AuthorPierini, L., AuthorPierro, V., AuthorPillant, G., AuthorPilo, F., AuthorPinard, L., AuthorPinto, I. M., AuthorPiotrzkowski, K., AuthorPirello, M., AuthorPitkin, M., AuthorPlacidi, E., AuthorPlastino, W., AuthorPluchar, C., AuthorPoggiani, R., AuthorPolini, E., AuthorPong, D. Y. T., AuthorPonrathnam, S., AuthorPopolizio, P., AuthorPorter, E. K., AuthorPoverman, A., AuthorPowell, J., AuthorPracchia, M., AuthorPrajapati, A. K., AuthorPrasai, K., AuthorPrasanna, R., AuthorPratten, G., AuthorPrestegard, T., AuthorPrincipe, M., AuthorProdi, G. 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Affiliations:
1Laser Interferometry & Gravitational Wave Astronomy, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_24010              
2Astrophysical and Cosmological Relativity, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_1933290              
3Observational Relativity and Cosmology, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_24011              
4Binary Merger Observations and Numerical Relativity, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_2461691              
5Computational Relativistic Astrophysics, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_2541714              

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Free keywords: Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, astro-ph.HE,General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, gr-qc
 Abstract: We report on the population properties of the 47 compact binary mergers detected with a false-alarm rate < 1 yr$^{-1}$ in the second LIGO--Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, GWTC-2. We investigate the binary black hole (BBH) mass distribution, spin distribution, and merger rate as a function of redshift, observing several BBH population characteristics not discernible until now. First, we find the primary mass spectrum contains structure beyond a power-law with a sharp high-mass cut-off; it is more consistent with a broken power law with a break at $39.7^{+20.3}_{-9.1}\,M_\odot$, or a power law with a Gaussian feature peaking at $33.5^{+4.5}_{5.5}\,M_\odot$ (90% crediblity). While the primary mass distribution must extend past $65\,M_\odot$, only $2.9^{+3.4}_{-1.7}\%$ of systems have primary masses greater than $45\,M_\odot$. At low masses, the primary mass spectrum is consistent with a gap between $\sim2.6\,M_\odot$ and $\sim6\,M_\odot$. Second, we find that a fraction of BBH systems have component spins misaligned with the orbital angular momentum, giving rise to precession of the orbital plane. Moreover, 12% to 44% of BBH systems have spins tilted by more than $90^\circ$, giving rise to a negative effective inspiral spin parameter. Third, we estimate merger rates, finding $R_\mathrm{BBH} = 23.9^{+14.9}_{-8.6}\,\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ for BBH and $R_\mathrm{BNS} = {320}^{+490}_{-240}\,\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ for binary neutron stars (BNS). The BBH rate likely increases with redshift (85% credibility), but not faster than the star-formation rate (87% credibility). Additionally, we examine recent exceptional events in the context of our population models, finding that the asymmetric masses of GW190412 and the high component masses of GW190521 are consistent with our models, but the low secondary mass of GW190814 makes it an outlier.

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 Dates: 2020-10-272021
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 48 pages, including 22 pages main text, 15 pages appendix, 26 figures
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: arXiv: 2010.14533
DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abe949
 Degree: -

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Title: The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 913 (1) Sequence Number: L7 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -