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  Population Properties of Compact Objects from the Second LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, The Virgo Collaboration, Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Abraham, S., Acernese, F., et al. (2021). Population Properties of Compact Objects from the Second LIGO-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 913(1): L7. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abe949.

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The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Author              
The Virgo Collaboration, Author              
Abbott, R., Author
Abbott, T. D., Author
Abraham, S., Author
Acernese, F., Author
Ackley, K., Author
Adams, A., Author
Adams, C., Author
Adhikari, R. X., Author
Adya, V. B., Author
Affeldt, C.1, Author           
Agathos, M., Author
Agatsuma, K., Author
Aggarwal, N., Author
Aguiar, O. D., Author
Aiello, L., Author
Ain, A., Author
Ajith, P., Author
Allen, G., Author
Allocca, A., AuthorAltin, P. A., AuthorAmato, A., AuthorAnand, S., AuthorAnanyeva, A., AuthorAnderson, S. B., AuthorAnderson, W. G., AuthorAngelova, S. V., AuthorAnsoldi, S., AuthorAntelis, J. M., AuthorAntier, S., AuthorAppert, S., AuthorArai, K., AuthorAraya, M. C., AuthorAreeda, J. S., AuthorArène, M., AuthorArnaud, N., AuthorAronson, S. M., AuthorArun, K. G., AuthorAsali, Y., AuthorAscenzi, S., AuthorAshton, G., AuthorAston, S. M., AuthorAstone, P., AuthorAubin, F., AuthorAufmuth, P.1, Author           AultONeal, K., AuthorAustin, C., AuthorAvendano, V., AuthorBabak, S., AuthorBadaracco, F., AuthorBader, M. K. M., AuthorBae, S., AuthorBaer, A. M., AuthorBagnasco, S., AuthorBaird, J., AuthorBall, M., AuthorBallardin, G., AuthorBallmer, S. W., AuthorBals, A., AuthorBalsamo, A., AuthorBaltus, G., AuthorBanagiri, S., AuthorBankar, D., AuthorBankar, R. S., AuthorBarayoga, J. C., AuthorBarbieri, C., AuthorBarish, B. C., AuthorBarker, D., AuthorBarneo, P., AuthorBarnum, S., AuthorBarone, F., AuthorBarr, B., AuthorBarsotti, L., AuthorBarsuglia, M., AuthorBarta, D., AuthorBartlett, J., AuthorBartos, I., AuthorBassiri, R., AuthorBasti, A., AuthorBawaj, M., AuthorBayley, J. C., AuthorBazzan, M., AuthorBecher, B. R., AuthorBécsy, B., AuthorBedakihale, V. M., AuthorBejger, M., AuthorBelahcene, I., AuthorBeniwal, D., AuthorBenjamin, M. G., AuthorBennett, T. F., AuthorBentley, J. D., AuthorBergamin, F.1, Author           Berger, B. K., AuthorBergmann, G.1, Author           Bernuzzi, S., AuthorBerry, C. P. L., AuthorBersanetti, D., AuthorBertolini, A., AuthorBetzwieser, J., AuthorBhandare, R., AuthorBhandari, A. V., AuthorBhattacharjee, D., AuthorBidler, J., AuthorBilenko, I. A., AuthorBillingsley, G., AuthorBirney, R., AuthorBirnholtz, O., AuthorBiscans, S., AuthorBischi, M., AuthorBiscoveanu, S., AuthorBisht, A.1, Author           Bitossi, M., AuthorBizouard, M. -A., AuthorBlackburn, J. K., AuthorBlackman, J., AuthorBlair, C. D., AuthorBlair, D. G., AuthorBlair, R. M., AuthorBlanch, O., AuthorBobba, F., AuthorBode, N.1, Author           Boer, M., AuthorBoetzel, Y., AuthorBogaert, G., AuthorBoldrini, M., AuthorBondu, F., AuthorBonilla, E., AuthorBonnand, R., AuthorBooker , P.1, AuthorBoom, B. A., AuthorBork, R., AuthorBoschi, V., AuthorBose, S., AuthorBossilkov, V., AuthorBoudart, V., AuthorBouffanais, Y., AuthorBozzi, A., AuthorBradaschia, C., AuthorBrady, P. R., AuthorBramley, A., AuthorBranchesi, M., AuthorBrau, J. E., AuthorBreschi, M., AuthorBriant, T., AuthorBriggs, J. H., AuthorBrighenti, F., AuthorBrillet, A., AuthorBrinkmann, M.1, Author           Brockill, P., AuthorBrooks, A. F., AuthorBrooks, J., AuthorBrown, D. D., AuthorBrunett, S., AuthorBruno, G., AuthorBruntz, R., AuthorBuikema, A., AuthorBulik, T., AuthorBulten, H. J., AuthorBuonanno, A.2, Author           Buscicchio, R., AuthorBuskulic, D., AuthorByer, R. L., AuthorCabero, M.3, Author           Cadonati, L., AuthorCaesar, M., AuthorCagnoli, G., AuthorCahillane, C., AuthorBustillo, J. Calderón, AuthorCallaghan, J. D., AuthorCallister, T. A., AuthorCalloni, E., AuthorCamp, J. B., AuthorCanepa, M., AuthorCannon, K. C., AuthorCao, H., AuthorCao, J., AuthorCarapella, G., AuthorCarbognani, F., AuthorCarney, M. F., AuthorCarpinelli, M., AuthorCarullo, G., AuthorCarver, T. L., AuthorDiaz, J. Casanueva, AuthorCasentini, C., AuthorCaudill, S., AuthorCavaglià, M., AuthorCavalier, F., AuthorCavalieri, R., AuthorCella, G., AuthorCerdá-Durán, P., AuthorCesarini, E., AuthorChaibi, W., AuthorChakravarti, K., AuthorChan, C. -L., AuthorChan, C., AuthorChandra, K., AuthorChanial, P., AuthorChao, S., AuthorCharlton, P., AuthorChase, E. A., AuthorChassande-Mottin, E., AuthorChatterjee, D., AuthorChattopadhyay, D., AuthorChaturvedi, M., AuthorChatziioannou, K., AuthorChen, A., AuthorChen, H. Y., AuthorChen, X., AuthorChen, Y., AuthorCheng, H. -P., AuthorCheong, C. K., AuthorChia, H. Y., AuthorChiadini, F., AuthorChierici, R., AuthorChincarini, A., AuthorChiummo, A., AuthorCho, G., AuthorCho, H. S., AuthorCho, M., AuthorChoate, S., AuthorChristensen, N., AuthorChu, Q., AuthorChua, S., AuthorChung, K. W., AuthorChung, S., AuthorCiani, G., AuthorCiecielag, P., AuthorCieślar, M., AuthorCifaldi, M., AuthorCiobanu, A. A., AuthorCiolfi, R., AuthorCipriano, F., AuthorCirone, A., AuthorClara, F., AuthorClark, E. N., AuthorClark, J. A., AuthorClarke, L., AuthorClearwater, P., AuthorClesse, S., AuthorCleva, F., AuthorCoccia, E., AuthorCohadon, P. -F., AuthorCohen, D. E., AuthorColleoni, M., AuthorCollette, C. G., AuthorCollins, C., AuthorColpi, M., AuthorConstancio, M., AuthorConti, L., AuthorCooper, S. J., AuthorCorban, P., AuthorCorbitt, T. R., AuthorCordero-Carrión, I., AuthorCorezzi, S., AuthorCorley, K. R., AuthorCornish, N., AuthorCorre, D., AuthorCorsi, A., AuthorCortese, S., AuthorCosta, C. A., AuthorCotesta, R.2, Author           Coughlin, M. W., AuthorCoughlin, S. B., AuthorCoulon, J. -P., AuthorCountryman, S. T., AuthorCouvares, P., AuthorCovas, P. B., AuthorCoward, D. M., AuthorCowart, M. J., AuthorCoyne, D. C., AuthorCoyne, R., AuthorCreighton, J. D. E., AuthorCreighton, T. D., AuthorCroquette, M., AuthorCrowder, S. G., AuthorCudell, J. R., AuthorCullen, T. J., AuthorCumming, A., AuthorCummings, R., AuthorCunningham, L., AuthorCuoco, E., AuthorCurylo, M., AuthorDal Canton, T. 2, AuthorDálya, G., AuthorDana, A., AuthorDaneshgaranBajastani, L. M., AuthorD'Angelo, B., AuthorDanilishin, S. L., AuthorD'Antonio, S., AuthorDanzmann, K.1, Author           Darsow-Fromm, C., AuthorDasgupta, A., AuthorDatrier, L. E. H., AuthorDattilo, V., AuthorDave, I., AuthorDavier, M., AuthorDavies, G. S., AuthorDavis, D., AuthorDaw, E. 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P., AuthorDrago, M., AuthorDriggers, J. C., AuthorDu, Z., AuthorDucoin, J. -G., AuthorDupej, P., AuthorDurante, O., AuthorD'Urso, D., AuthorDuverne, P. -A., AuthorDwyer, S. E., AuthorEaster, P. J., AuthorEddolls, G., AuthorEdelman, B., AuthorEdo, T. B., AuthorEdy, O., AuthorEffler, A., AuthorEichholz, J., AuthorEikenberry, S. S., AuthorEisenmann, M., AuthorEisenstein, R. A., AuthorEjlli, A., AuthorErrico, L., AuthorEssick, R. C., AuthorEstellés, H., AuthorEstevez, D., AuthorEtienne, Z. B., AuthorEtzel, T., AuthorEvans, M., AuthorEvans, T. M., AuthorEwing, B. E., AuthorFafone, V., AuthorFair, H., AuthorFairhurst, S., AuthorFan, X., AuthorFarah, A. M., AuthorFarinon, S., AuthorFarr, B., AuthorFarr, W. M., AuthorFauchon-Jones, E. J., AuthorFavata, M., AuthorFays, M., AuthorFazio, M., AuthorFeicht, J., AuthorFejer, M. M., AuthorFeng, F., AuthorFenyvesi, E., AuthorFerguson, D. L., AuthorFernandez-Galiana, A., AuthorFerrante, I., AuthorFerreira, T. A., AuthorFidecaro, F., AuthorFigura, P., AuthorFiori, I., AuthorFiorucci, D., AuthorFishbach, M., AuthorFisher, R. P., AuthorFishner, J. M., AuthorFittipaldi, R., AuthorFitz-Axen, M., AuthorFiumara, V., AuthorFlaminio, R., AuthorFloden, E., AuthorFlynn, E., AuthorFong, H., AuthorFont, J. A., AuthorForsyth, P. W. F., AuthorFournier, J. -D., AuthorFrasca, S., AuthorFrasconi, F., AuthorFrei, Z., AuthorFreise, A., AuthorFrey, R., AuthorFrey, V., AuthorFritschel, P., AuthorFrolov, V. V., AuthorFronzé, G. G., AuthorFulda, P., AuthorFyffe, M., AuthorGabbard, H. A., AuthorGadre, B.2, Author           Gaebel, S. M., AuthorGair, J.2, Author           Gais, J., AuthorGalaudage, S., AuthorGamba, R., AuthorGanapathy, D., AuthorGanguly, A., AuthorGaonkar, S. G., AuthorGaraventa, B., AuthorGarcía-Quirós, C., AuthorGarufi, F., AuthorGateley, B., AuthorGaudio, S., AuthorGayathri, V., AuthorGemme, G., AuthorGennai, A., AuthorGeorge, D., AuthorGeorge, J., AuthorGergely, L., AuthorGhonge, S., AuthorGhosh, Abhirup2, Author           Ghosh, Archisman, AuthorGhosh, S., AuthorGiacomazzo, B., AuthorGiacoppo, L., AuthorGiaime, J. A., AuthorGiardina, K. D., AuthorGibson, D. R., AuthorGier, C., AuthorGill, K., AuthorGiri, P., AuthorGlanzer, J., AuthorGleckl, A. E., AuthorGodwin, P., AuthorGoetz, E., AuthorGoetz, R., AuthorGohlke, N.1, Author           Goncharov, B., AuthorGonzález, G., AuthorGopakumar, A., AuthorGossan, S. E., AuthorGosselin, M., AuthorGouaty, R., AuthorGrace, B., AuthorGrado, A., AuthorGranata, M., AuthorGranata, V., AuthorGrant, A., AuthorGras, S., AuthorGrassia, P., AuthorGray, C., AuthorGray, R., AuthorGreco, G., AuthorGreen, A. C., AuthorGreen, R., AuthorGretarsson, E. M., AuthorGriggs, H. L., AuthorGrignani, G., AuthorGrimaldi, A., AuthorGrimes, E., AuthorGrimm, S. J., AuthorGrote, H., AuthorGrunewald, S.2, Author           Gruning, P., AuthorGuerrero, J. G., AuthorGuidi, G. M., AuthorGuimaraes, A. R., AuthorGuixé, G., AuthorGulati, H. K., AuthorGuo, Y., AuthorGupta, Anchal, AuthorGupta, Anuradha, AuthorGupta, P., AuthorGustafson, E. K., AuthorGustafson, R., AuthorGuzman, F., AuthorHaegel, L., AuthorHalim, O., AuthorHall, E. D., AuthorHamilton, E. Z., AuthorHammond, G., AuthorHaney, M., AuthorHanke, M. M., AuthorHanks, J., AuthorHanna, C., AuthorHannuksela, O. A., AuthorHansen, H., AuthorHansen, T. J., AuthorHanson, J., AuthorHarder, T., AuthorHardwick, T., AuthorHaris, K., AuthorHarms, J., AuthorHarry, G. M., AuthorHarry, I. W., AuthorHartwig, D., AuthorHasskew, R. K., AuthorHaster, C. -J., AuthorHaughian, K., AuthorHayes, F. J., AuthorHealy, J., AuthorHeidmann, A., AuthorHeintze, M. C., AuthorHeinze, J.1, Author           Heinzel, J., AuthorHeitmann, H., AuthorHellman, F., AuthorHello, P., AuthorHelmling-Cornell, A. F., AuthorHemming, G., AuthorHendry, M., AuthorHeng, I. S., AuthorHennes, E., AuthorHennig, J.-S.1, Author           Hennig , M. H.1, AuthorVivanco, F. Hernandez, AuthorHeurs, M.1, Author           Hild, S., AuthorHill, P., AuthorHines, A. S., AuthorHochheim , S.1, AuthorHofgard, E., AuthorHofman, D., AuthorHohmann, J. N., AuthorHolgado, A. M., AuthorHolland, N. A., AuthorHollows, I. J., AuthorHolmes, Z. J., AuthorHolt, K., AuthorHolz, D. E., AuthorHopkins, P., AuthorHorst, C., AuthorHough, J., AuthorHowell, E. J., AuthorHoy, C. G., AuthorHoyland, D., AuthorHuang, Y., AuthorHübner, M. T., AuthorHuddart, A. D., AuthorHuerta, E. A., AuthorHughey, B., AuthorHui, V., AuthorHusa, S., AuthorHuttner, S. H., AuthorHutzler, B. M., AuthorHuxford, R., AuthorHuynh-Dinh, T., AuthorIdzkowski, B., AuthorIess, A., AuthorImperato, S., AuthorInchauspe, H., AuthorIngram, C., AuthorIntini, G., AuthorIsi, M., AuthorIyer, B. R., AuthorJaberianHamedan, V., AuthorJacqmin, T., AuthorJadhav, S. J., AuthorJadhav, S. P., AuthorJames, A. L., AuthorJani, K., AuthorJanssens, K., AuthorJanthalur, N. N., AuthorJaranowski, P., AuthorJariwala, D., AuthorJaume, R., AuthorJenkins, A. C., AuthorJeunon, M., AuthorJiang, J., AuthorJohns, G. R., AuthorJones, A. W., AuthorJones, D. I., AuthorJones, J. D., AuthorJones, P., AuthorJones, R., AuthorJonker, R. J. G., AuthorJu, L., AuthorJunker, J.1, Author           Kalaghatgi, C. V., AuthorKalogera, V., AuthorKamai, B., AuthorKandhasamy, S., AuthorKang, G., AuthorKanner, J. B., AuthorKapadia, S. J., AuthorKapasi, D. P., AuthorKarathanasis, C., AuthorKarki, S., AuthorKashyap, R., AuthorKasprzack, M., AuthorKastaun, W.4, Author           Katsanevas, S., AuthorKatsavounidis, E., AuthorKatzman, W., AuthorKawabe, K., AuthorKéfélian, F., AuthorKeitel, D., AuthorKey, J. S., AuthorKhadka, S., AuthorKhalili, F. Y., AuthorKhan, I., AuthorKhan, S., AuthorKhazanov, E. A., AuthorKhetan, N., AuthorKijbunchoo, N., AuthorKim, C., AuthorKim, G. J., AuthorKim, J. C., AuthorKim, K., AuthorKim, W. S., AuthorKim, Y. -M., AuthorKimball, C., AuthorKing, P. J., AuthorKinley-Hanlon, M., AuthorKirchhoff, R.1, Author           Kissel, J. S., AuthorKleybolte, L., AuthorKlimenko, S., AuthorKnowles, T. D., AuthorKnyazev, E., AuthorKoch, P., AuthorKoehlenbeck, S.1, Author           Koekoek, G., AuthorKoley, S., AuthorKolstein, M., AuthorKomori, K., AuthorKondrashov, V., AuthorKontos, A., AuthorKoper, N.1, Author           Korobko, M., AuthorKorth, W. Z., AuthorKovalam, M., AuthorKozak, D. B., AuthorKrämer, C.1, Author           Kringel, V.1, Author           Krishnendu , N. V.1, AuthorKrólak, A., AuthorKuehn, G.1, Author           Kumar, A., AuthorKumar, P., AuthorKumar, Rahul, AuthorKumar, Rakesh, AuthorKuns, K., AuthorKwang, S., AuthorLackey, B. D., AuthorLaghi, D., AuthorLalande, E., AuthorLam, T. L., AuthorLamberts, A., AuthorLandry, M., AuthorLane, B. B., AuthorLang, R. N., AuthorLange, J., AuthorLantz, B., AuthorLanza, R. K., AuthorLa Rosa, I., AuthorLartaux-Vollard, A., AuthorLasky, P. D., AuthorLaxen, M., AuthorLazzarini, A., AuthorLazzaro, C., AuthorLeaci, P., AuthorLeavey, S.1, Author           Lecoeuche, Y. K., AuthorLee, H. M., AuthorLee, H. W., AuthorLee, J., AuthorLee, K., AuthorLehmann, J.1, Author           Leon, E., AuthorLeroy, N., AuthorLetendre, N., AuthorLevin, Y., AuthorLi, A., AuthorLi, J., AuthorLi, K. J. L., AuthorLi, T. G. F., AuthorLi, X., AuthorLinde, F., AuthorLinker, S. D., AuthorLinley, J. N., AuthorLittenberg, T. B., AuthorLiu, J.1, Author           Liu, X., AuthorLlorens-Monteagudo, M., AuthorLo, R. K. L., AuthorLockwood, A., AuthorLondon, L. T., AuthorLongo, A., AuthorLorenzini, M., AuthorLoriette, V., AuthorLormand, M., AuthorLosurdo, G., AuthorLough, J.1, Author           Lousto, C. O., AuthorLovelace, G., AuthorLück, H.1, Author           Lumaca, D., AuthorLundgren, A. P., AuthorMa, Y., AuthorMacas, R., AuthorMacInnis, M., AuthorMacleod, D. M., AuthorMacMillan, I. A. O., AuthorMacquet, A., AuthorHernandez, I. Magaña, AuthorMagaña-Sandoval, F., AuthorMagazzù, C., AuthorMagee, R. M., AuthorMajorana, E., AuthorMaksimovic, I., AuthorMaliakal, S., AuthorMalik, A., AuthorMan, N., AuthorMandic, V., AuthorMangano, V., AuthorMansell, G. L., AuthorManske, M., AuthorMantovani, M., AuthorMapelli, M., AuthorMarchesoni, F., AuthorMarion, F., AuthorMárka, S., AuthorMárka, Z., AuthorMarkakis, C., AuthorMarkosyan, A. S., AuthorMarkowitz, A., AuthorMaros, E., AuthorMarquina, A., AuthorMarsat, S., AuthorMartelli, F., AuthorMartin, I. W., AuthorMartin, R. M., AuthorMartinez, M., AuthorMartinez, V., AuthorMartynov, D. V., AuthorMasalehdan, H., AuthorMason, K., AuthorMassera, E., AuthorMasserot, A., AuthorMassinger, T. J., AuthorMasso-Reid, M., AuthorMastrogiovanni, S., AuthorMatas, A.2, Author           Mateu-Lucena, M., AuthorMatichard, F., AuthorMatiushechkina, M.1, Author           Mavalvala, N., AuthorMaynard, E., AuthorMcCann, J. J., AuthorMcCarthy, R., AuthorMcClelland, D. E., AuthorMcCormick, S., AuthorMcCuller, L., AuthorMcGuire, S. C., AuthorMcIsaac, C., AuthorMcIver, J., AuthorMcManus, D. J., AuthorMcRae, T., AuthorMcWilliams, S. T., AuthorMeacher, D., AuthorMeadors, G. D., AuthorMehmet, M.1, Author           Mehta, A. K.2, Author           Melatos, A., AuthorMelchor, D. A., AuthorMendell, G., AuthorMenendez-Vazquez, A., AuthorMercer, R. A., AuthorMereni, L., AuthorMerfeld, K., AuthorMerilh, E. L., AuthorMerritt, J. D., AuthorMerzougui, M., AuthorMeshkov, S., AuthorMessenger, C., AuthorMessick, C., AuthorMetzdorff, R., AuthorMeyers, P. M., AuthorMeylahn, F.1, Author           Mhaske, A., AuthorMiani, A., AuthorMiao, H., AuthorMichaloliakos, I., AuthorMichel, C., AuthorMiddleton, H., AuthorMilano, L., AuthorMiller, A. L., AuthorMiller, S., AuthorMillhouse, M., AuthorMills, J. C., AuthorMilotti, E., AuthorMilovich-Goff, M. C., AuthorMinazzoli, O., AuthorMinenkov, Y., AuthorMir, Ll. M., AuthorMishkin, A., AuthorMishra, C., AuthorMistry, T., AuthorMitra, S., AuthorMitrofanov, V. P., AuthorMitselmakher, G., AuthorMittleman, R., AuthorMo, G., AuthorMogushi, K., AuthorMohapatra, S. R. P., AuthorMohite, S. R., AuthorMolina, I., AuthorMolina-Ruiz, M., AuthorMondin, M., AuthorMontani, M., AuthorMoore, C. J., AuthorMoraru, D., AuthorMorawski, F., AuthorMoreno, G., AuthorMorisaki, S., AuthorMours, B., AuthorMow-Lowry, C. M., AuthorMozzon, S., AuthorMuciaccia, F., AuthorMukherjee, Arunava, AuthorMukherjee, D., AuthorMukherjee, Soma, AuthorMukherjee, Subroto, AuthorMukund, N.1, Author           Mullavey, A., AuthorMunch, J., AuthorMuñiz, E. A., AuthorMurray, P. G., AuthorNadji, S. L.1, Author           Nagar, A., AuthorNardecchia, I., AuthorNaticchioni, L., AuthorNayak, R. K., AuthorNeil, B. F., AuthorNeilson, J., AuthorNelemans, G., AuthorNelson, T. J. N., AuthorNery, M.1, Author           Neunzert, A., AuthorNg, K. Y., AuthorNg, S., AuthorNguyen, C., AuthorNguyen, P., AuthorNguyen, T., AuthorNichols, S. A., AuthorNissanke, S., AuthorNocera, F., AuthorNoh, M., AuthorNorth, C., AuthorNothard, D., AuthorNuttall, L. K., AuthorOberling, J., AuthorO'Brien, B. D., AuthorO'Dell, J., AuthorOganesyan, G., AuthorOgin, G. H., AuthorOh, J. J., AuthorOh, S. H., AuthorOhme, F.4, Author           Ohta, H., AuthorOkada, M. A., AuthorOlivetto, C., AuthorOppermann, P.1, Author           Oram, R. J., AuthorO'Reilly, B., AuthorOrmiston, R. G., AuthorOrmsby, N., AuthorOrtega, L. F., AuthorO'Shaughnessy, R., AuthorOssokine, S.2, Author           Osthelder, C., AuthorOttaway, D. J., AuthorOvermier, H., AuthorOwen, B. J., AuthorPace, A. E., AuthorPagano, G., AuthorPage, M. A., AuthorPagliaroli, G., AuthorPai, A., AuthorPai, S. A., AuthorPalamos, J. R., AuthorPalashov, O., AuthorPalomba, C., AuthorPan, H., AuthorPanda, P. K., AuthorPang, T. H., AuthorPankow, C., AuthorPannarale, F., AuthorPant, B. C., AuthorPaoletti, F., AuthorPaoli, A., AuthorPaolone, A., AuthorParker, W., AuthorPascucci, D., AuthorPasqualetti, A., AuthorPassaquieti, R., AuthorPassuello, D., AuthorPatel, M., AuthorPatricelli, B., AuthorPayne, E., AuthorPechsiri, T. C., AuthorPedraza, M., AuthorPegoraro, M., AuthorPele, A., AuthorPenn, S., AuthorPerego, A., AuthorPerez, C. J., AuthorPérigois, C., AuthorPerreca, A., AuthorPerriès, S., AuthorPetermann, J., AuthorPetterson, D., AuthorPfeiffer, H.2, Author           Pham, K. A., AuthorPhukon, K. S., AuthorPiccinni, O. J., AuthorPichot, M., AuthorPiendibene, M., AuthorPiergiovanni, F., AuthorPierini, L., AuthorPierro, V., AuthorPillant, G., AuthorPilo, F., AuthorPinard, L., AuthorPinto, I. M., AuthorPiotrzkowski, K., AuthorPirello, M., AuthorPitkin, M., AuthorPlacidi, E., AuthorPlastino, W., AuthorPluchar, C., AuthorPoggiani, R., AuthorPolini, E., AuthorPong, D. Y. T., AuthorPonrathnam, S., AuthorPopolizio, P., AuthorPorter, E. K., AuthorPoverman, A., AuthorPowell, J., AuthorPracchia, M., AuthorPrajapati, A. K., AuthorPrasai, K., AuthorPrasanna, R., AuthorPratten, G., AuthorPrestegard, T., AuthorPrincipe, M., AuthorProdi, G. 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Affiliations:
1Laser Interferometry & Gravitational Wave Astronomy, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_24010              
2Astrophysical and Cosmological Relativity, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_1933290              
3Observational Relativity and Cosmology, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_24011              
4Binary Merger Observations and Numerical Relativity, AEI-Hannover, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_2461691              
5Computational Relativistic Astrophysics, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_2541714              

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Free keywords: Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, astro-ph.HE,General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology, gr-qc
 Abstract: We report on the population properties of the 47 compact binary mergers
detected with a false-alarm rate < 1 yr$^{-1}$ in the second LIGO--Virgo
Gravitational-Wave Transient Catalog, GWTC-2. We investigate the binary black
hole (BBH) mass distribution, spin distribution, and merger rate as a function
of redshift, observing several BBH population characteristics not discernible
until now. First, we find the primary mass spectrum contains structure beyond a
power-law with a sharp high-mass cut-off; it is more consistent with a broken
power law with a break at $39.7^{+20.3}_{-9.1}\,M_\odot$, or a power law with a
Gaussian feature peaking at $33.5^{+4.5}_{5.5}\,M_\odot$ (90% crediblity).
While the primary mass distribution must extend past $65\,M_\odot$, only
$2.9^{+3.4}_{-1.7}\%$ of systems have primary masses greater than
$45\,M_\odot$. At low masses, the primary mass spectrum is consistent with a
gap between $\sim2.6\,M_\odot$ and $\sim6\,M_\odot$. Second, we find that a
fraction of BBH systems have component spins misaligned with the orbital
angular momentum, giving rise to precession of the orbital plane. Moreover, 12%
to 44% of BBH systems have spins tilted by more than $90^\circ$, giving rise to
a negative effective inspiral spin parameter. Third, we estimate merger rates,
finding $R_\mathrm{BBH} =
23.9^{+14.9}_{-8.6}\,\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ for BBH and
$R_\mathrm{BNS} = {320}^{+490}_{-240}\,\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ for
binary neutron stars (BNS). The BBH rate likely increases with redshift (85%
credibility), but not faster than the star-formation rate (87% credibility).
Additionally, we examine recent exceptional events in the context of our
population models, finding that the asymmetric masses of GW190412 and the high
component masses of GW190521 are consistent with our models, but the low
secondary mass of GW190814 makes it an outlier.

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 Dates: 2020-10-272021
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 48 pages, including 22 pages main text, 15 pages appendix, 26 figures
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: arXiv: 2010.14533
DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/abe949
 Degree: -

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Title: The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 913 (1) Sequence Number: L7 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -