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  Archaeometric studies on the petroglyphs and rock varnish at Kilwa and Sakaka, northern Saudi Arabia

Andreae, M. O., Al-Amri, A., Andreae, C. M., Guagnin, M., Jochum, K. P., Stoll, B., et al. (2020). Archaeometric studies on the petroglyphs and rock varnish at Kilwa and Sakaka, northern Saudi Arabia. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, n/a(n/a): 12167. doi:10.1111/aae.12167.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-5371-C Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-5372-B
Genre: Journal Article

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aae12167-sup-0001-Suppinfo.pdf (Supplementary material)
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Supplement S1: Images of the rock art elements investigated (last seen Nov. 2020)

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 Creators:
Andreae, Meinrat O., Author
Al-Amri, Abdullah, Author
Andreae, Claire M., Author
Guagnin, Maria1, Author              
Jochum, Klaus Peter, Author
Stoll, Brigitte, Author
Weis, Ulrike, Author
Affiliations:
1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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Free keywords: rock art, petroglyphs, rock varnish, manganese, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age
 Abstract: Abstract We conducted rock varnish measurements at four rock art sites in north-western Saudi Arabia, including Kilwa and the Camel Site near Sakaka. We determined the areal densities of Mn and Fe in rock varnish that had accumulated on petroglyph surfaces since their creation, complemented by a detailed analysis of varnish samples. We inferred varnish accumulation rates by relating the Mn areal density on inscriptions to their ages estimated based on the type of script used. Applying these rates to the varnish densities on the rock art indicated that the art was produced during two distinct periods, corresponding to the Pre-Pottery/Late Neolithic and the Bronze/Iron Age, respectively, with different artistic traditions, reflecting distinct socioeconomic and ecological conditions. Our dating approach, while admittedly burdened with substantial uncertainties, yields ages consistent with archaeological and historical evidence and it provides a unique quantitative tool to obtain at least rough ages for otherwise undatable rock art.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020-10-14
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 26
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: 1 Introduction
2 Background: study, region, climate and history
3 Methods and materials
3.1 Site description
3.1.1 Camel site (Sakaka)
3.1.2 Hudrah Cave (Sakaka)
3.1.3 Kilwa
3.1.4 Jabal Tubaiq hill
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
3.2.2 Femtosecond LA-ICP-MS
3.2.3 Data analysis
4 Results and discussion
4.1 Rock varnish chemical composition
4.2 Areal density of Mn and Fe in the rock varnish
4.3 Normalised areal density of Mn and Fe on the petroglyph surfaces
4.4 Variability of the Mn and Fe areal densities
4.5 Absolute and normalised Mn and Fe accumulation rates
4.6 Rock varnish on petroglyph surfaces
4.6.1 Neolithic game animals
4.6.2 Ibex
4.6.3 Anthropomorphs
4.6.4 Camels
4.6.5 Dogs
4.6.6 Inscriptions
4.6.7 Christian symbols
4.6.8 Horses
4.6.9 Wusum
5 Summary and conclusions
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1111/aae.12167
Other: shh2750
 Degree: -

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Title: Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Copenhagen [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
Pages: - Volume / Issue: n/a (n/a) Sequence Number: 12167 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1600-0471
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1600-0471