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  Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution

Kim, J.-Y., Krichbaum, T. P., Broderick, A. E., Wielgus, M., Blackburn, L., Gómez, J. L., et al. (2020). Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 640: A69. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037493.

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Item Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-7E08-4 Version Permalink: http://hdl.handle.net/21.11116/0000-0007-7E09-3
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Kim, Jae-Young, Author
Krichbaum, Thomas P., Author
Broderick, Avery E., Author
Wielgus, Maciek, Author
Blackburn, Lindy, Author
Gómez, José L., Author
Johnson, Michael D., Author
Bouman, Katherine L., Author
Chael, Andrew, Author
Akiyama, Kazunori, Author
Jorstad, Svetlana, Author
Marscher, Alan P., Author
Issaoun, Sara, Author
Janssen, Michael, Author
Chan, Chi-kwan, Author
Savolainen, Tuomas, Author
Pesce, Dominic W., Author
Özel, Feryal, Author
Alberdi, Antxon, Author
Alef, Walter, Author
Asada, Keiichi, AuthorAzulay, Rebecca, AuthorBaczko, Anne-Kathrin, AuthorBall, David, AuthorBaloković, Mislav, AuthorBarrett, John, AuthorBintley, Dan, AuthorBoland, Wilfred, AuthorBower, Geoffrey C., AuthorBremer, Michael, AuthorBrinkerink, Christiaan D., AuthorBrissenden, Roger, AuthorBritzen, Silke, AuthorBroguiere, Dominique, AuthorBronzwaer, Thomas, AuthorByun, Do-Young, AuthorCarlstrom, John E., AuthorChatterjee, Shami, AuthorChatterjee, Koushik, AuthorChen, Ming-Tang, AuthorChen, Yongjun, AuthorCho, Ilje, AuthorChristian, Pierre, AuthorConway, John E., AuthorCordes, James M., AuthorCrew, Geoffrey B., AuthorCui, Yuzhu, AuthorDavelaar, Jordy, AuthorLaurentis, Mariafelicia De, AuthorDeane, Roger, AuthorDempsey, Jessica, AuthorDesvignes, Gregory, AuthorDexter, Jason, AuthorDoeleman, Sheperd S., AuthorEatough, Ralph P., AuthorFalcke, Heino, AuthorFish, Vincent L., AuthorFomalont, Ed, AuthorFraga-Encinas, Raquel, AuthorFriberg, Per, AuthorFromm, Christian M., AuthorGalison, Peter, AuthorGammie, Charles F., AuthorGarcía, Roberto, AuthorGentaz, Olivier, AuthorGeorgiev, Boris, AuthorGoddi, Ciriaco, AuthorGold, Roman, AuthorGómez-Ruiz, Arturo I., AuthorGu, Minfeng, AuthorGurwell, Mark, AuthorHada, Kazuhiro, AuthorHecht, Michael H., AuthorHesper, Ronald, AuthorHo, Luis C., AuthorHo, Paul, AuthorHonma, Mareki, AuthorHuang, Chih-Wei L., AuthorHuang, Lei, AuthorHughes, David H., AuthorIkeda, Shiro, AuthorInoue, Makoto, AuthorJames, David J., AuthorJannuzi, Buell T., AuthorJeter, Britton, AuthorJiang, Wu, AuthorJimenez Rosales, Alejandra1, Author              Jung, Taehyun, AuthorKarami, Mansour, AuthorKaruppusamy, Ramesh, AuthorKawashima, Tomohisa, AuthorKeating, Garrett K., AuthorKettenis, Mark, AuthorKim, Junhan, AuthorKim, Jongsoo, AuthorKino, Motoki, AuthorKoay, Jun Yi, AuthorKoch, Patrick M., AuthorKoyama, Shoko, AuthorKramer, Michael, AuthorKramer, Carsten, AuthorKuo, Cheng-Yu, AuthorLauer, Tod R., AuthorLee, Sang-Sung, AuthorLi, Yan-Rong, AuthorLi, Zhiyuan, AuthorLindqvist, Michael, AuthorLico, Rocco, AuthorLiu, Kuo, AuthorLiuzzo, Elisabetta, AuthorLo, Wen-Ping, AuthorLobanov, Andrei P., AuthorLoinard, Laurent, AuthorLonsdale, Colin, AuthorLu, Ru-Sen, AuthorMacDonald, Nicholas R., AuthorMao, Jirong, AuthorMarkoff, Sera, AuthorMarrone, Daniel P., AuthorMartí-Vidal, Iván, AuthorMatsushita, Satoki, AuthorMatthews, Lynn D., AuthorMedeiros, Lia, AuthorMenten, Karl M., AuthorMizuno, Yosuke, AuthorMizuno, Izumi, AuthorMoran, James M., AuthorMoriyama, Kotaro, AuthorMoscibrodzka, Monika, AuthorMusoke, Gibwa, AuthorMüller, Cornelia, AuthorNagai, Hiroshi, AuthorNagar, Neil M., AuthorNakamura, Masanori, AuthorNarayan, Ramesh, AuthorNarayanan, Gopal, AuthorNatarajan, Iniyan, AuthorNeri, Roberto, AuthorNi, Chunchong, AuthorNoutsos, Aristeidis, AuthorOkino, Hiroki, AuthorOlivares, Héctor, AuthorOrtiz-León, Gisela N., AuthorOyama, Tomoaki, AuthorPalumbo, Daniel C. M., AuthorPark, Jongho, AuthorPatel, Nimesh, AuthorPen, Ue-Li, AuthorPiétu, Vincent, AuthorPlambeck, Richard, AuthorPopStefanija, Aleksandar, AuthorPorth, Oliver, AuthorPrather, Ben, AuthorPreciado-López, Jorge A., AuthorPsaltis, Dimitrios, AuthorPu, Hung-Yi, AuthorRamakrishnan, Venkatessh, AuthorRao, Ramprasad, AuthorRawlings, Mark G., AuthorRaymond, Alexander W., AuthorRezzolla, Luciano, AuthorRipperda, Bart, AuthorRoelofs, Freek, AuthorRogers, Alan, AuthorRos, Eduardo, AuthorRose, Mel, AuthorRoshanineshat, Arash, AuthorRottmann, Helge, AuthorRoy, Alan L., AuthorRuszczyk, Chet, AuthorRyan, Benjamin R., AuthorRygl, Kazi L. J., AuthorSánchez, Salvador, AuthorSánchez-Arguelles, David, AuthorSasada, Mahito, AuthorSchloerb, F. Peter, AuthorSchuster, Karl-Friedrich, AuthorShao, Lijing, AuthorShen, Zhiqiang, AuthorSmall, Des, AuthorSohn, Bong Won, AuthorSooHoo, Jason, AuthorTazaki, Fumie, AuthorTiede, Paul, AuthorTilanus, Remo P. J., AuthorTitus, Michael, AuthorToma, Kenji, AuthorTorne, Pablo, AuthorTrent, Tyler, AuthorTraianou, Efthalia, AuthorTrippe, Sascha, AuthorTsuda, Shuichiro, Authorvan Bemmel, Ilse, Authorvan Langevelde, Huib Jan, Authorvan Rossum, Daniel R., AuthorWagner, Jan, AuthorWardle, John, AuthorWard-Thompson, Derek, AuthorWeintroub, Jonathan, AuthorWex, Norbert, AuthorWharton, Robert, AuthorWong, George N., AuthorWu, Qingwen, AuthorYoon, Doosoo, AuthorYoung, André, AuthorYoung, Ken, AuthorYounsi, Ziri, AuthorYuan, Feng, AuthorYuan, Ye-Fei, AuthorZensus, J. Anton, AuthorZhao, Guangyao, AuthorZhao, Shan-Shan, AuthorZhu, Ziyan, AuthorAlgaba, Juan-Carlos, AuthorAllardi, Alexander, AuthorAmestica, Rodrigo, AuthorAnczarski, Jadyn, AuthorBach, Uwe, AuthorBaganoff, Frederick K., AuthorBeaudoin, Christopher, AuthorBenson, Bradford A., AuthorBerthold, Ryan, AuthorBlanchard, Jay M., AuthorBlundell, Ray, AuthorBustamente, Sandra, AuthorCappallo, Roger, AuthorCastillo-Domínguez, Edgar, AuthorChang, Chih-Cheng, AuthorChang, Shu-Hao, AuthorChang, Song-Chu, AuthorChen, Chung-Chen, AuthorChilson, Ryan, AuthorChuter, Tim C., AuthorRosado, Rodrigo Córdova, AuthorCoulson, Iain M., AuthorCrowley, Joseph, AuthorDerome, Mark, AuthorDexter, Matthew, AuthorDornbusch, Sven, AuthorDudevoir, Kevin A., Author⋆⋆, AuthorDzib, Sergio A., AuthorEckart, Andreas, AuthorEckert, Chris, AuthorErickson, Neal R., AuthorEverett, Wendeline B., AuthorFaber, Aaron, AuthorFarah, Joseph R., AuthorFath, Vernon, AuthorFolkers, Thomas W., AuthorForbes, David C., AuthorFreund, Robert, AuthorGale, David M., AuthorGao, Feng1, Author              Geertsema, Gertie, AuthorGraham, David A., AuthorGreer, Christopher H., AuthorGrosslein, Ronald, AuthorGueth, Frédéric, AuthorHaggard, Daryl, AuthorHalverson, Nils W., AuthorHan, Chih-Chiang, AuthorHan, Kuo-Chang, AuthorHao, Jinchi, AuthorHasegawa, Yutaka, AuthorHenning, Jason W., AuthorHernández-Gómez, Antonio, AuthorHerrero-Illana, Rubén, AuthorHeyminck, Stefan, AuthorHirota, Akihiko, AuthorHoge, James, AuthorHuang, Yau-De, AuthorImpellizzeri, C. M. Violette, AuthorJiang, Homin, AuthorJohn, David, AuthorKamble, Atish, AuthorKeisler, Ryan, AuthorKimura, Kimihiro, AuthorKono, Yusuke, AuthorKubo, Derek, AuthorKuroda, John, AuthorLacasse, Richard, AuthorLaing, Robert A., AuthorLeitch, Erik M., AuthorLi, Chao-Te, AuthorLin, Lupin C.-C., AuthorLiu, Ching-Tang, AuthorLiu, Kuan-Yu, AuthorLu, Li-Ming, AuthorMarson, Ralph G., AuthorMartin-Cocher, Pierre L., AuthorMassingill, Kyle D., AuthorMatulonis, Callie, AuthorMcColl, Martin P., AuthorMcWhirter, Stephen R., AuthorMessias, Hugo, AuthorMeyer-Zhao, Zheng, AuthorMichalik, Daniel, AuthorMontaña, Alfredo, AuthorMontgomerie, William, AuthorMora-Klein, Matias, AuthorMuders, Dirk, AuthorNadolski, Andrew, AuthorNavarro, Santiago, AuthorNeilsen, Joseph, AuthorNguyen, Chi H., AuthorNishioka, Hiroaki, AuthorNorton, Timothy, AuthorNowak, Michael A., AuthorNystrom, George, AuthorOgawa, Hideo, AuthorOshiro, Peter, AuthorOyama, Tomoaki, AuthorParsons, Harriet, AuthorPeñalver, Juan, AuthorPhillips, Neil M., AuthorPoirier, Michael, AuthorPradel, Nicolas, AuthorPrimiani, Rurik A., AuthorRaffin, Philippe A., AuthorRahlin, Alexandra S., AuthorReiland, George, AuthorRisacher, Christopher, AuthorRuiz, Ignacio, AuthorSáez-Madaín, Alejandro F., AuthorSassella, Remi, AuthorSchellart, Pim, AuthorShaw, Paul, AuthorSilva, Kevin M., AuthorShiokawa, Hotaka, AuthorSmith, David R., AuthorSnow, William, AuthorSouccar, Kamal, AuthorSousa, Don, AuthorSridharan, Tirupati K., AuthorSrinivasan, Ranjani, AuthorStahm, William, AuthorStark, Antony A., AuthorStory, Kyle, AuthorTimmer, Sjoerd T., AuthorVertatschitsch, Laura, AuthorWalther, Craig, AuthorWei, Ta-Shun, AuthorWhitehorn, Nathan, AuthorWhitney, Alan R., AuthorWoody, David P., AuthorWouterloot, Jan G. A., AuthorWright, Melvin, AuthorYamaguchi, Paul, AuthorYu, Chen-Yu, AuthorZeballos, Milagros, AuthorZhang, Shuo, AuthorZiurys, Lucy, Author more..
Affiliations:
1Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_159889              

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 Abstract: 3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique – global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) – to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable γ-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0.536 this corresponds to ∼0.13 pc  ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation. We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across different imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI “core”. This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet. We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1.3 and ∼1.7 μas day−1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3 mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≲1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7 mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2020-08-12
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202037493
Other: LOCALID: 3267009
 Degree: -

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Title: Astronomy and Astrophysics
  Other : Astron. Astrophys.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: France : EDP Sciences S A
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 640 Sequence Number: A69 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1432-0746
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954922828219_1