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  Lessons from Natural Product Total Synthesis: Macrocyclization and Postcyclization Strategies

Fürstner, A. (2021). Lessons from Natural Product Total Synthesis: Macrocyclization and Postcyclization Strategies. Accounts of Chemical Research, 54(4), 861-874. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.0c00759.

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Fürstner, Alois1, Author           
1Research Department Fürstner, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Max Planck Society, ou_1445584              


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 Abstract: Macrocyclic natural products are plentiful in the bacteria, archaea, and eukaryote domains of life. For the significant advantages that they provide to the producing organisms, evolution has learned how to implement various types of macrocyclization reactions into the different biosynthetic pathways and how to effect them with remarkable ease. Mankind greatly benefits from nature’s pool, not least because naturally occurring macrocycles or derivatives thereof serve as important drugs for the treatment of many serious ailments. In stark contrast, macrocyclization reactions are usually perceived as difficult to accomplish by purely chemical means. While it is true that ring closure necessarily entails an entropic loss and may result in the buildup of (considerable) ring strain that must be compensated for in one way or the other, it is also fair to note tremendous methodological advances during the last decades that greatly alleviated this traditional “macrocycle challenge”. It is therefore increasingly possible to explore the advantages provided by large as well as medium-size ring systems in a more systematic manner. This venture also holds the promise of increasing the “chemical space” amenable to drug development to a considerable extent. In consideration of this and other important long-term perspectives, it is appropriate to revisit the current state of the art. To this end, a number of vignettes are presented, each of which summarizes a total synthesis project targeting macrocyclic natural products of greatly different chemotypes using a variety of transformations to reach these goals. Although we were occasionally facing “dead ends”, which are also delineated for the sake of a complete picture, these case studies illustrate the notion that the formation of a certain macrocyclic perimeter is (usually) no longer seriously limiting. In addition to substantial progress in the “classical” repertoire (macrolactonization and macrolactamization (pateamine A, spirastrellolide, and belizentrin)), various metal-catalyzed reactions have arguably led to the greatest leaps forward. Among them, palladium-catalyzed C–C bond formation (roseophilin and nominal xestocyclamine A) and, in particular, alkene and alkyne metathesis stand out (iejimalide, spirastrellolide, enigmazole, ingenamine, and sinulariadiolide). In some cases, different methods were pursued in parallel, thus allowing for a critical assessment and comparison. To the extent that the macrocyclic challenge is vanishing, the opportunity arises to focus attention on the postmacrocyclization phase. One may stipulate that a well-designed cyclization precursor does not only ensure efficient ring closure but also fosters and streamlines the steps that come after the event. One way to do so is dual (multiple) use in that the functional groups serving the actual cyclization reaction also find productive applications downstream from it rather than being subject to simple defunctionalization. In this context, better insight into the conformational peculiarities of large rings and the growing confidence in their accessibility in a stereochemically well defined format rejuvenate the implementation of transannular reactions or reaction cascades that can lead to rapid and substantial increases in molecular complexity. The examples summarized herein showcase such possibilities, with special emphasis on tranannular gold catalysis and the emerging ruthenium-catalyzed trans-hydrometalation chemistry for the selective functionalization of alkynes.


Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-01-282021-02-16
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 14
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.0c00759
 Degree: -



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Source 1

Title: Accounts of Chemical Research
  Other : Acc. Chem. Res.
Source Genre: Journal
Publ. Info: Easton, Pa. : American Chemical Society
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 54 (4) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 861 - 874 Identifier: ISSN: 0001-4842
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925373792