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  Ancient genomic time transect from the Central Asian Steppe unravels the history of the Scythians

Gnecchi-Ruscone, G. A., Khussainova, E., Kahbatkyzy, N., Musralina, L., Spyrou, M. A., Bianco, R. A., et al. (2021). Ancient genomic time transect from the Central Asian Steppe unravels the history of the Scythians. Science Advances, 7(13): eabe4414. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abe4414.

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PDF file, Data file S1-S4 (Supplementary material)
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The PDF file includes: Supplementary Text S1, Figs. S1 to S5, Tables S1 to S5, Legends for data files S1 to S4, References

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 Creators:
Gnecchi-Ruscone, Guido Alberto1, Author              
Khussainova, Elmira, Author
Kahbatkyzy, Nurzhibek, Author
Musralina, Lyazzat2, Author              
Spyrou, Maria A.2, Author              
Bianco, Raffaela A.1, Author              
Radzeviciute, Rita2, 3, Author              
Martins, Nuno Filipe Gomes2, Author              
Freund, Cäcilia1, Author              
Iksan, Olzhas, Author
Garshin, Alexander, Author
Zhaniyazov, Zhassulan, Author
Bekmanov, Bakhytzhan, Author
Kitov, Egor, Author
Samashev, Zainolla, Author
Beisenov, Arman, Author
Berezina, Natalia, Author
Berezin, Yakov, Author
Bíró, András Zsolt, Author
Évinger, Sándor, Author
Bissembaev, Arman, AuthorAkhatov, Gaziz, AuthorMamedov, Aslan, AuthorOnggaruly, Akhan, AuthorVoyakin, Dmitriy, AuthorChotbayev, Aidos, AuthorKariyev, Yeldos, AuthorBuzhilova, Alexandra, AuthorDjansugurova, Leyla, AuthorJeong, Choongwon2, 4, Author              Krause, Johannes1, 2, Author               more..
Affiliations:
1MHAAM, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2541699              
2Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074310              
3Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              
4Eurasia3angle, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2301699              

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 Abstract: The Scythians were a multitude of horse-warrior nomad cultures dwelling in the Eurasian steppe during the first millennium BCE. Because of the lack of first-hand written records, little is known about the origins and relations among the different cultures. To address these questions, we produced genome-wide data for 111 ancient individuals retrieved from 39 archaeological sites from the first millennia BCE and CE across the Central Asian Steppe. We uncovered major admixture events in the Late Bronze Age forming the genetic substratum for two main Iron Age gene-pools emerging around the Altai and the Urals respectively. Their demise was mirrored by new genetic turnovers, linked to the spread of the eastern nomad empires in the first centuries CE. Compared to the high genetic heterogeneity of the past, the homogenization of the present-day Kazakhs gene pool is notable, likely a result of 400 years of strict exogamous social rules.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-03-24
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 15
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction
Results
- The IA transition in the Kazakh Steppe
- Admixture modeling of IA steppe populations
- Post-IA genetic turnovers in the Kazakh Steppe
- Dating ancient admixture
- Present-day Kazakhs
Discussion
Material and methods
- Radiocarbon dating
- DNA extraction, library preparations, and sequencing
- Modern DNA genotyping and quality controls
- Ancient DNA data processing
-- Raw data
-- Authentication and contamination estimate
-- Genotyping
-- Sex determination
-- Genetic relatedness estimation
- Uniparental haplogroup assignment
- Population structure analyses
- Individual labeling and population grouping criteria
- F-statistics and ancestry modeling
- Admixture dating
- CHROMOPAINTER and fineSTRUCTURE analyses
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe4414
Other: shh2894
 Degree: -

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Title: Science Advances
  Other : Sci. Adv.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington : AAAS
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 7 (13) Sequence Number: eabe4414 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2375-2548
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2375-2548