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  Effect of Cd diffusion on the electrical properties of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell

Koprek, A., Zabierowski, P., Pawlowski, M., Sharma, L., Freysoldt, C., Gault, B., et al. (2021). Effect of Cd diffusion on the electrical properties of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cell. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 224: 110989. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2021.110989.

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 Creators:
Koprek, Ania1, Author              
Zabierowski, Pawel2, Author              
Pawlowski, Marek2, Author              
Sharma, Luv3, Author              
Freysoldt, Christoph4, Author              
Gault, Baptiste5, 6, Author              
Würz, Roland7, Author              
Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana1, 8, Author              
Affiliations:
1Interface Design in Solar Cells, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863387              
2Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662, Warsaw, Poland, ou_persistent22              
3Mechanics of Materials Group, Materials Technology Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, ou_persistent22              
4Defect Chemistry and Spectroscopy, Computational Materials Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863342              
5Atom Probe Tomography, Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Society, ou_1863384              
6Imperial College, Royal School of Mines, Department of Materials, London, SW7 2AZ, UK, ou_persistent22              
7Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden Württemberg, Industriestraße 6, 70565 Stuttgart, Germany, ou_persistent22              
8I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen, Germany, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Annealing; Cadmium; Cadmium sulfide; Cadmium sulfide solar cells; Defects; Deterioration; Diffusion; II-VI semiconductors; Selenium compounds; Sulfur compounds; Thin film solar cells, Annealing temperatures; Atom-probe tomography; Complex compositions; Constituent elements; Degradation process; Elemental redistribution; Operation conditions; Thermally induced degradations, Iodine compounds
 Abstract: Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe)-based solar cells are promising candidates for efficient sunlight harvesting. However, their complex composition and microstructure can change under operation conditions, for instance heating from sun light illumination can lead to a degradation in performance. Here, we investigate the thermally-induced degradation processes in a set of CIGSe-based solar cells that were annealed at temperatures between 150 °C and 300 °C. Using correlative atom probe tomography (APT)/transmission electron microscope (TEM), we found that the buffer/absorber interface is not sharp but consists of an interfacial zone (2–6.5 nm wide) where a gradient of constituent elements belonging to the CdS buffer and CIGSe absorber appears. An enhanced short-range Cd in-diffusion inside the CIGSe was observed whenever a low Ga/(Ga + In) ratio (≤ 0.15) occurred at the interface. This might indicate the presence of Ga vacancies as a channeling defect for Cd in-diffusion inside the CIGSe layer leading to a buried p/n-homojunction. We evidence that a considerable amount of Cd is found inside the CIGSe layer at annealing temperatures higher than 150 °C. Further investigations of the elemental redistribution inside the CIGSe layer combined with C–V measurements support the formation of CdCu + donor like defects deep inside the p-type CIGSe which lead to a strong compensation of the CIGSe layer and hence to strong deterioration of cell efficiency at annealing temperatures higher than 200 °C. Hence, understanding the degradation processes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe)-based solar cells opens new opportunities for further improvement of the long-term device performance. © 2021

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-02-162021-06-01
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2021.110989
 Degree: -

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Project name : The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. hab. Malgorzata Igalson, for the opportunity of performing electrical characterization on the solar cells investigated in this paper at the Faculty of Physics at Warsaw University of Technology. We would like to acknowledge the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (contract No. WU 693/1-1 ) for financing the fabrication of the solar cells used in this paper and the lab team at the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart for the cells fabrication. We are grateful to U. Tezins and A. Sturm for their support to the FIB and APT facilities at MPIE. The authors acknowledge the International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials (IMPRS-SurMat) for supporting the present work. In Poland studies were funded by FOTECH-1 project granted by Warsaw University of Technology under the program Excellence Initiative: Research University (ID-UB).
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Title: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
  Abbreviation : Sol. Energy Mater Sol. Cells
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Amsterdam : North-Holland
Pages: 10 Volume / Issue: 224 Sequence Number: 110989 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0927-0248
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954928539160