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  Reactive nitrogen around the Arabian Peninsula and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 2017 AQABA ship campaign

Friedrich, N., Eger, P., Shenolikar, J., Sobanski, N., Schuladen, J., Dienhart, D., et al. (2021). Reactive nitrogen around the Arabian Peninsula and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 2017 AQABA ship campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(10), 7473-7498. doi:10.5194/acp-21-7473-2021.

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Friedrich, Nils1, Author              
Eger, Philipp1, Author              
Shenolikar, Justin1, Author              
Sobanski, Nicolas1, Author              
Schuladen, Jan1, Author              
Dienhart, Dirk1, Author              
Hottmann, Bettina1, Author              
Tadic, Ivan1, Author              
Fischer, Horst1, Author              
Martinez, Monica1, Author              
Rohloff, Roland1, Author              
Tauer, Sebastian1, Author              
Harder, Hartwig1, Author              
Pfannerstill, Eva Y.1, Author              
Wang, Nijing1, Author              
Williams, Jonathan1, Author              
Brooks, James, Author
Drewnick, Frank2, Author              
Su, Hang3, Author              
Li, Guo3, Author              
Cheng, Yafang3, Author              Lelieveld, Jos1, Author              Crowley, John N.1, Author               more..
1Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826285              
2Particle Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826291              
3Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826290              


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 Abstract: We present shipborne measurements of NOx (≡ NO + NO2) and NOy (≡ NOx+ gas- and particle-phase organic and inorganic oxides of nitrogen) in summer 2017 as part of the expedition “Air Quality and climate change in the Arabian BAsin” (AQABA). The NOx and NOz (≡ NOy-NOx) measurements, made with a thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer (TD-CRDS), were used to examine the chemical mechanisms involved in the processing of primary NOx emissions and their influence on the NOy budget in chemically distinct marine environments, including the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Gulf, which were influenced to varying extents by emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Complementing the TD-CRDS measurements, NO and NO2 data sets from a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) were used in the analysis. In all regions, we find that NOx is strongly connected to ship emissions, both via direct emission of NO and via the formation of HONO and its subsequent photolytic conversion to NO. The role of HONO was assessed by calculating the NOx production rate from its photolysis. Mean NO2 lifetimes were 3.9 h in the Mediterranean Sea, 4.0 h in the Arabian Gulf, and 5.0 h in the Red Sea area. The cumulative loss of NO2 during the night (reaction with O3) was more important than daytime losses (reaction with OH) over the Arabian Gulf (by a factor 2.8) and over the Red Sea (factor 2.9), whereas over the Mediterranean Sea, where OH levels were high, daytime losses dominated (factor 2.5). Regional ozone production efficiencies (OPEs; calculated from the correlation between Ox and NOz, where Ox= O3+ NO2) ranged from 10.5 ± 0.9 to 19.1 ± 1.1. This metric quantifies the relative strength of photochemical O3 production from NOx compared to the competing sequestering into NOz species. The largest values were found over the Arabian Gulf, consistent with high levels of O3 found in that region (10–90 percentiles range: 23–108 ppbv). The fractional contribution of individual NOz species to NOy exhibited a large regional variability, with HNO3 generally the dominant component (on average 33 % of NOy) with significant contributions from organic nitrates (11 %) and particulate nitrates in the PM1 size range (8 %).


Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-05-18
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-7473-2021
 Degree: -



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Title: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
  Abbreviation : ACP
Source Genre: Journal
Publ. Info: Göttingen : Copernicus Publications
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 21 (10) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 7473 - 7498 Identifier: ISSN: 1680-7316
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/111030403014016