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  Multi-echo gradient-recalled-echo phase unwrapping using a Nyquist sampled virtual echo train in the presence of high-field gradients

Madhusoodhanan, S., Hagberg, G., Scheffler, K., & Paul, J. (2021). Multi-echo gradient-recalled-echo phase unwrapping using a Nyquist sampled virtual echo train in the presence of high-field gradients. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 86(4), 2220-2233. doi:10.1002/mrm.28841.

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Madhusoodhanan, S, Author
Hagberg, GE1, 2, Author              
Scheffler, K1, 2, Author              
Paul, JS, Author
Affiliations:
1Department High-Field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497796              
2Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497794              

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 Abstract: Purpose: To develop a spatio-temporal approach to accurately unwrap multi-echo gradient-recalled echo phase in the presence of high-field gradients. Theory and methods: Using the virtual echo-based Nyquist sampled (VENyS) algorithm, the temporal unwrapping procedure is modified by introduction of one or more virtual echoes between the first lower and the immediate higher echo, so as to reinstate the Nyquist condition at locations with high-field gradients. An iterative extension of the VENyS algorithm maintains spatial continuity by adjusting the phase rotations to make the neighborhood phase differences less than π. The algorithm is evaluated using simulated data, Gadolinium contrast-doped phantom, and in vivo brain, abdomen, and chest data sets acquired at 3 T and 9.4 T. The unwrapping performance is compared with the standard temporal unwrapping algorithm used in the morphology-enabled dipole inversion-QSM pipeline as a benchmark for validation. Results: Quantitative evaluation using numerical phantom showed significant reduction in unwrapping errors in regions of large field gradients, and the unwrapped phase revealed an exact match with the linear concentration profile of vials in a gadolinium contrast-doped phantom data acquired at 9.4 T. Without the need for additional spatial unwrapping, the iterative VENyS algorithm was able to generate spatially continuous phase images. Application to in vivo data resulted in better unwrapping performance, especially in regions with large susceptibility changes such as the air/tissue interface. Conclusion: The iterative VENyS algorithm serves as a robust unwrapping method for multi-echo gradient-recalled echo phase in the presence of high-field gradients.

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 Dates: 2021-052021-10
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/mrm.28841
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Title: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: New York : Wiley-Liss
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 86 (4) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 2220 - 2233 Identifier: ISSN: 0740-3194
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925538149