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  Cranial morphometric analysis of early wet-rice farmers in the Yangtze River Delta of China

Okazaki, K., Takamuku, H., Kawakubo, Y., Hudson, M., & Chen, J. (2021). Cranial morphometric analysis of early wet-rice farmers in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Anthropological science, 210325. doi:10.1537/ase.210325.

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(last seen: June 2021)
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 Creators:
Okazaki, Kenji, Author
Takamuku, Hirofumi, Author
Kawakubo, Yoshinori, Author
Hudson, Mark1, Author           
Chen, Jie, Author
Affiliations:
1Eurasia3angle, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2301699              

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Free keywords: agricultural dispersals, millet and rice, Guangfulin site, Songze and Liangzhu cultures, Yayoi migrants
 Abstract: The Yangtze River Delta is the best-known homeland of wet-rice agriculture. From the Middle Neolithic, rice farming expanded from the Yangtze region to both the north and the south. However, poor preservation of ancient human skeletal remains in the region has meant that the population history of these expansions has not been fully understood. In order to clarify the ancestry of early wet-rice farmers in East Asia, we conducted a cranial morphometric analysis and comparison of a Middle Neolithic skeletal assemblage excavated from the Guangfulin site, Shanghai. The results of bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that: (1) Neolithic wet-rice farmers from the lower Yangtze retained local morphological characteristics, but were nevertheless morphologically more similar to Neolithic and later populations in northern China, which was home to early millet farmers, than to Neolithic populations in south China; and (2) Neolithic and later agricultural populations in East Asia were morphologically homogeneous compared to pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherer groups even though the area occupied by both was equally vast. These results suggest, respectively, that: (1) Middle Neolithic wet-rice farmers in the Yangtze Delta experienced significant gene flow from regions of northern China such as the Central Plains and Shandong even though there is currently no evidence that millet cultivation itself had yet reached the delta region; and (2) Neolithic populations resulting from interaction between the Yangtze Delta and northern China dispersed widely across much of East Asia including the Japanese archipelago together with the spread of wet-rice agricultural technologies. These two proposals are paralleled by recent stable isotope analyses using tooth enamel and bone collagen, as well as archaeological evidence from Shandong. Finally, a facial approximation was conducted using a cranium (M252) excavated from Guangfulin for the purpose of visually expressing the results of this study.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-06-19
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 20
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction
- Guangfulin Site
Materials and Methods
Results
Discussion
- Population flows between wet-rice and millet farmers
- Linking early wet-rice farmers with migration to the Japanese archipelago
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1537/ase.210325
Other: shh2976
 Degree: -

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Project name : Eurasia3angle
Grant ID : 646612
Funding program : Horizon 2020 (H2020)
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)

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Title: Anthropological science
  Other : Anthropological science : the official journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon
  Other : Jinruigaku-zasshi
  Abbreviation : Anthropol. Sci.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Tokio : Nihon Jinrui Gakkai
Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: 210325 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0918-7960
ISSN: 1348-8570
ISSN: 0918-7960
ISSN: 0003-5505
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/0918-7960