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  Facile monitoring of water hardness levels using responsive complex emulsions

Pavlovic, M., Babu, H. K. R. R., Djalali, S., Vraneš, M., Radonić, V., & Zeininger, L. (2021). Facile monitoring of water hardness levels using responsive complex emulsions. Analytical Chemistry, 93(27), 9390-9396. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00868.

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Pavlovic, Marko, Author
Babu, Heman Kumar Ramiya Ramesh, Author
Djalali, Saveh1, Author           
Vraneš, Milan, Author
Radonić, Vasa, Author
Zeininger, Lukas1, Author           
Affiliations:
1Lukas Zeininger, Kolloidchemie, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Max Planck Society, ou_3179204              

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Free keywords: Salts, Morphology, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Liquids, Surfactants
 Abstract: The cationic content of water represents a major quality control parameter that needs to be followed by a rapid, on-site, and low-cost method. Herein, we report a novel method for a facile monitoring of the mineral content of drinking water by making use of responsive complex emulsions. The morphology of biphasic oil-in-water droplets solely depends on the balance of interfacial tensions, and we demonstrate that changes in the surfactant effectiveness, caused by variations in the mineral content inside the continuous phase, can be visualized by monitoring internal droplet shapes. An addition of metal cations can significantly influence the surfactant critical micelle concentrations and the surface excess values and therefore induce changes in the effectiveness of ionic surfactants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. The morphological response of Janus emulsions droplets was tracked via a simple microscopic setup. We observed that the extent of the droplet response was dependent on the salt concentration and valency, with divalent cations (responsive for water hardness), resulting in a more pronounced response. In this way, Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels could be quantitatively measured, which we showcased by determination of the mineral content of commercial water samples. The herein demonstrated device concept may provide a new alternative rapid monitoring of water hardness levels in a simple and cost-effective setup.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-07-022021
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00868
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Title: Analytical Chemistry
  Abbreviation : Anal. Chem.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 93 (27) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 9390 - 9396 Identifier: ISSN: 0003-2700