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  Multilingualism in Vanuatu: four case studies

Walworth, M., Dewar, A., Ennever, T., Takau, L., & Rodriguez, I. (2021). Multilingualism in Vanuatu: four case studies. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13670069211023132. doi:10.1177/13670069211023132.

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Online Appendix 1 (Supplementary material)
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Language use in Makatu, Emae. - PDF. - (last seen: Juli 2021)
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Online Appendix 2 (Supplementary material)
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Language use in Tongamea, Emae. - PDF. - (last seen: Juli 2021)
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 Creators:
Walworth, Mary1, Author           
Dewar, Amy, Author
Ennever, Thomas, Author
Takau, Lana1, Author           
Rodriguez, Iveth, Author
Affiliations:
1Linguistic and Cultural Evolution, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074311              

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Free keywords: Emae, endangered languages, linguistic diversity, Maewo, Malekula, small-scale multilingualism, sociolinguistic identities, Vanuatu
 Abstract: Each of the 65 inhabited islands of Vanuatu hosts its own unique linguistic environment in which varying degrees of multilingualism are found. This paper defines various types of small-scale multilingual settings in Vanuatu and explores what sociohistorical factors have led to them. This paper is based on first-hand observations and primary data collected by the authors in four locations in the Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu since 2016: two neighboring villages of Emae Island (Makatu and Tongamea), North Malekula, and on Maewo Island. The assessments of multilingualism in these examples from Vanuatu were qualitative, based on observations of sociolinguistic practices in each of these areas, as well as data from language history and language use surveys carried out in each place. Through defining and comparing the types of multilingualism present in the four case studies, we identify patterns in the social and historical processes that lead to various kinds of multilingualism: (a) interaction of linguistic and sociocultural identities and (b) mobility of both individuals and entire speech communities. The examples described in this paper are used to highlight the diversity of multilingualism found in Vanuatu and to explore how their differing linguistic environments and histories have contributed to their varying degrees of multilingualism. This paper makes an original contribution to knowledge about the small-scale multilingual situations in Vanuatu, offering descriptions of previously undocumented and endangered multilingual environments. Through an examination of the sociocultural motivations for multilingualism, alongside historical migrations of speaker groups and marked sociolinguistic identities, this paper contributes to research on why and how small-scale multilingualism can develop. Furthermore, this paper provides the foundation for future, more rigorous investigations into the small-scale multilingual situations of this highly understudied region.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-07-03
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 22
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 Table of Contents: Introduction
Linguistic situation of Vanuatu
- Classification of languages
- Linguistic diversity
Multiple multilingual situations
- Data collection
- Emae
-- Makatu Village
-- Tongamea Village
- North Malekula
- Maewo
- Defining Vanuatu’s multilingual situations
- Driving forces of multilingualism
Conclusions
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1177/13670069211023132
Other: shh2984
 Degree: -

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Title: International Journal of Bilingualism
  Subtitle : Special Issue: Typology of Small-Scale Multilingualism
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Sage Publ.
Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: 13670069211023132 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1367-0069
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925280624