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  Recursive music elucidates neural mechanisms supporting the generation and detection of melodic hierarchies

Martins, M., Fischmeister, F. P. S., Gingras, B., Bianco, R., Puig-Waldmueller, E., Villringer, A., et al. (2020). Recursive music elucidates neural mechanisms supporting the generation and detection of melodic hierarchies. Brain Structure & Function, 225, 1997-2015. doi:10.1007/s00429-020-02105-7.

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 Creators:
Martins, Mauricio1, 2, 3, 4, Author              
Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.5, 6, Author
Gingras, Bruno7, Author
Bianco, Roberta8, Author
Puig-Waldmueller, Estela9, Author
Villringer, Arno1, 2, 3, Author
Fitch, W. Tecumseh9, Author
Beisteiner, Roland10, Author
Affiliations:
1Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany, ou_persistent22              
2Department Neurology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_634549              
3Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig, Germany, ou_persistent22              
4Institut Jean Nicod, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, ou_persistent22              
5Institute of Psychology, Karl Franzens University, Graz, Austria, ou_persistent22              
6Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Austria, ou_persistent22              
7Institute of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Austria, ou_persistent22              
8UCL Ear Institute, University College London, United Kingdom, ou_persistent22              
9Department of Cognitive Biology, University Vienna, Austria, ou_persistent22              
10Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Hierarchy; Hippocampus; IFG; Music; Recursion; STG
 Abstract: The ability to generate complex hierarchical structures is a crucial component of human cognition which can be expressed in the musical domain in the form of hierarchical melodic relations. The neural underpinnings of this ability have been investigated by comparing the perception of well-formed melodies with unexpected sequences of tones. However, these contrasts do not target specifically the representation of rules generating hierarchical structure. Here, we present a novel paradigm in which identical melodic sequences are generated in four steps, according to three different rules: The Recursive rule, generating new hierarchical levels at each step; The Iterative rule, adding tones within a fixed hierarchical level without generating new levels; and a control rule that simply repeats the third step. Using fMRI, we compared brain activity across these rules when participants are imagining the fourth step after listening to the third (generation phase), and when participants listened to a fourth step (test sound phase), either well-formed or a violation. We found that, in comparison with Repetition and Iteration, imagining the fourth step using the Recursive rule activated the superior temporal gyrus (STG). During the test sound phase, we found fronto-temporo-parietal activity and hippocampal de-activation when processing violations, but no differences between rules. STG activation during the generation phase suggests that generating new hierarchical levels from previous steps might rely on retrieving appropriate melodic hierarchy schemas. Previous findings highlighting the role of hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus may reflect processing of unexpected melodic sequences, rather than hierarchy generation per se.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2019-09-122020-06-162020-06-262020-09
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1007/s00429-020-02105-7
Other: epub 2020
PMID: 32591927
PMC: PMC7473971
 Degree: -

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Grant ID : SFRH/BD/64206/2009
Funding program : -
Funding organization : Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)
Project name : -
Grant ID : ANR-17-EURE-0017; ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02 PSL
Funding program : -
Funding organization : Front-Cog

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Title: Brain Structure & Function
  Abbreviation : Brain Struct Funct
Source Genre: Journal
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Affiliations:
Publ. Info: Berlin : Springer
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 225 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 1997 - 2015 Identifier: ISSN: 1863-2653
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1863-2653