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  Modelling the evolution of the Sun's open and total magnetic flux

Krivova, N. A., Solanki, S. K., Hofer, B., Wu, C.-J., Usoskin, I. G., & Cameron, R. (2021). Modelling the evolution of the Sun's open and total magnetic flux. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 650: A70. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202140504.

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Genre: Journal Article

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 Creators:
Krivova, N. A.1, Author              
Solanki, S. K.2, Author              
Hofer, Bernhard2, Author              
Wu, Chi-Ju2, Author              
Usoskin, I. G., Author
Cameron, R.2, Author              
Affiliations:
1Max Planck Research Group in Solar Variability and Climate, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society, ou_2265637              
2Department Sun and Heliosphere, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max Planck Society, ou_1832289              

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Free keywords: Sun: activity / Sun: heliosphere / Sun: magnetic fields / Sun: photosphere / solar-terrestrial relations
 Abstract: Solar activity in all its varied manifestations is driven by the magnetic field. Two global quantities are particularly important for many purposes, the Sun’s total and open magnetic flux, which can be computed from sunspot number records using models. Such sunspot-driven models, however, do not take into account the presence of magnetic flux during grand minima, such as the Maunder minimum. Here we present a major update of a widely used simple model, which now takes into account the observation that the distribution of all magnetic features on the Sun follows a single power law. The exponent of the power law changes over the solar cycle. This allows for the emergence of small-scale magnetic flux even when no sunspots have been present for multiple decades and leads to non-zero total and open magnetic flux also in the deepest grand minima, such as the Maunder minimum, thus overcoming a major shortcoming of the earlier models. The results of the updated model compare well with the available observations and reconstructions of the solar total and open magnetic flux. This opens up the possibility of improved reconstructions of the sunspot number from time series of the cosmogenic isotope production rate.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202140504
 Degree: -

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Title: Astronomy and Astrophysics
  Other : Astron. Astrophys.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Les Ulis Cedex A France : EDP Sciences
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 650 Sequence Number: A70 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1432-0746
ISSN: 0004-6361
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954922828219_1