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  Investigating X-ray sources during the epoch of reionization with the 21 cm signal

Ma, Q.-B., Ciardi, B., Eide, M. B., Busch, P., Mao, Y., & Zhi, Q.-J. (2021). Investigating X-ray sources during the epoch of reionization with the 21 cm signal. The Astrophysical Journal, 912(2): 143. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abefd5.

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Ma, Qing-Bo, Author
Ciardi, Benedetta1, Author              
Eide, Marius B.1, Author              
Busch, Philipp1, Author              
Mao, Yi, Author
Zhi, Qi-Jun, Author
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1Computational Structure Formation, MPI for Astrophysics, Max Planck Society, ou_2205642              

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 Abstract: Heating of neutral gas by energetic sources is crucial for the prediction of the 21 cm signal during the epoch of reionization. To investigate differences induced on the statistics of the 21 cm signal by various source types, we use five radiative transfer simulations that have the same stellar UV emission model and varying combinations of more energetic sources, such as X-ray binaries (XRBs), accreting nuclear black holes (BHs), and hot interstellar medium emission (ISM). We find that the efficient heating from the ISM increases the average global 21 cm signal while reducing its fluctuations and thus power spectrum. A clear impact is also observed in the bispectrum in terms of scale and timing of the transition between a positive and a negative value. The impact of XRBs is similar to that of the ISM, although it is delayed in time and reduced in intensity because of the less efficient heating. Due to the paucity of nuclear BHs, the behavior of the 21 cm statistics in their presence is very similar to that of a case when only stars are considered, with the exception of the latest stages of reionization, when the effect of BHs is clearly visible. We find that differences between the source scenarios investigated here are larger than the instrumental noise of SKA1-low at z ≳7–8, suggesting that in the future it might be possible to constrain the spectral energy distribution of the sources contributing to the reionization process.

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 Dates: 2021-05-14
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abefd5
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Title: The Astrophysical Journal
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Bristol; Vienna : IOP Publishing; IAEA
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 912 (2) Sequence Number: 143 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0004-637X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954922828215_3