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  Exposomes to Exosomes: Exosomes as Tools to Study Epigenetic Adaptive Mechanisms in High-Altitude Humans

Padmasekar, M., Savai, R., Seeger, W., & Pullamsetti, S. S. (2021). Exposomes to Exosomes: Exosomes as Tools to Study Epigenetic Adaptive Mechanisms in High-Altitude Humans. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 18(16): 8280. doi:10.3390/ijerph18168280.

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 Creators:
Padmasekar, Manju1, Author              
Savai, Rajkumar1, Author              
Seeger, Werner1, Author              
Pullamsetti, Soni Savai1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Lung Development and Remodeling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Max Planck Society, ou_2591698              

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Free keywords: INDUCED PULMONARY-HYPERTENSION; EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES; TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS; FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATION; ABERRANT METHYLATION; CHRONIC HYPOXIA; NONCODING RNAS; MESSENGER-RNAS; TIBETAN; LUNGEnvironmental Sciences & Ecology; Public, Environmental & Occupational Health; high-altitude adaptation; high-altitude pulmonary hypertension; hypobaric hypoxia; epigenetics; exosomes;
 Abstract: Humans on earth inhabit a wide range of environmental conditions and some environments are more challenging for human survival than others. However, many living beings, including humans, have developed adaptive mechanisms to live in such inhospitable, harsh environments. Among different difficult environments, high-altitude living is especially demanding because of diminished partial pressure of oxygen and resulting chronic hypobaric hypoxia. This results in poor blood oxygenation and reduces aerobic oxidative respiration in the mitochondria, leading to increased reactive oxygen species generation and activation of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Genetic mechanisms in the adaptation to high altitude is well-studied, but there are only limited studies regarding the role of epigenetic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to understand the epigenetic mechanisms behind high-altitude adaptive and maladaptive phenotypes. Hypobaric hypoxia is a form of cellular hypoxia, which is similar to the one suffered by critically-ill hypoxemia patients. Thus, understanding the adaptive epigenetic signals operating in in high-altitude adjusted indigenous populations may help in therapeutically modulating signaling pathways in hypoxemia patients by copying the most successful epigenotype. In addition, we have summarized the current information about exosomes in hypoxia research and prospects to use them as diagnostic tools to study the epigenome of high-altitude adapted healthy or maladapted individuals.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-08-05
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 20
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: ISI: 000690547100001
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168280
 Degree: -

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Title: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: ST ALBAN-ANLAGE 66, CH-4052 BASEL, SWITZERLAND : MDPI
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 18 (16) Sequence Number: 8280 Start / End Page: - Identifier: -