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  Cranial shape diversification in horses: variation and covariation patterns under the impact of artificial selection

Hanot, P., Bayarsaikhan, J., Guintard, C., Haruda, A., Mijiddorj, E., Schafberg, R., et al. (2021). Cranial shape diversification in horses: variation and covariation patterns under the impact of artificial selection. BMC Ecology and Evolution, 21(1): 178. doi:10.1186/s12862-021-01907-5.

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Additional file 1-6 (Supplementary material)
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Additional file 1= List of the specimens. - Additional file 2= Landmark definition. - Additional file 3= Analysis of sexual dimorphism. - Additional file 4= Study of the modularity structure. - Additional file 5= Integration and modularity analyses on landmarks and curves only. - Additional file 6= Pairwise comparisons of the effect sizes of PLS analyses for each group. - (last seen: Oct. 2021)

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 Creators:
Hanot, Pauline1, Author              
Bayarsaikhan, Jamsranjav1, Author              
Guintard, Claude, Author
Haruda, Ashleigh, Author
Mijiddorj, Enkhbayar, Author
Schafberg, Renate, Author
Taylor, William, Author
Affiliations:
1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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Free keywords: Artificial selection, Geometric morphometrics, Horse, Morphological integration, Skull
 Abstract: The potential of artificial selection to dramatically impact phenotypic diversity is well known. Large-scale morphological changes in domestic species, emerging over short timescales, offer an accelerated perspective on evolutionary processes. The domestic horse (Equus caballus) provides a striking example of rapid evolution, with major changes in morphology and size likely stemming from artificial selection. However, the microevolutionary mechanisms allowing to generate this variation in a short time interval remain little known. Here, we use 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify skull morphological diversity in the horse, and investigate modularity and integration patterns to understand how morphological associations contribute to cranial evolvability in this taxon. We find that changes in the magnitude of cranial integration contribute to the diversification of the skull morphology in horse breeds. Our results demonstrate that a conserved pattern of modularity does not constrain large-scale morphological variations in horses and that artificial selection has impacted mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity to facilitate rapid shape changes. More broadly, this study demonstrates that studying microevolutionary processes in domestic species produces important insights into extant phenotypic diversity.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-09-21
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 19
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction
Material and methods
- Material
- Acquisition of data
- Shape analyses
- Integration and modularity
-- Modular patterning
-- Covariation patterns
-- Magnitude of morphological integration
Results
- Size and shape variation
- Allometry‑free shape variation
- Allometry‑free shape variation of the modules
- Modularity and integration
Discussion
- Cranial shape variation in the horse: the role of allometry and artificial selection in the morphological diversification
- Cranial modularity and shape diversification
-- Stasis in patterns, changes in magnitude
-- Influence of morphological integration on shape variance
- The role of function and development in integration patterns
-- Anterior region
-- Posterior region
Conclusion
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1186/s12862-021-01907-5
Other: shh3056
 Degree: -

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Title: BMC Ecology and Evolution
  Abbreviation : BMC Ecol Evo
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : BioMed Central
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 21 (1) Sequence Number: 178 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2730-7182
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2730-7182