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  Healthcare for trans*gender people in Germany: Gaps, challenges, and perspectives

Guethlein, N., Grahlow, M., Lewis, C. A., Bork, S., Habel, U., & Derntl, B. (2021). Healthcare for trans*gender people in Germany: Gaps, challenges, and perspectives. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 15: 718335. doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.718335.

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 Creators:
Guethlein, Nora1, Author
Grahlow, Melina1, 2, Author
Lewis, Carolin Annette1, 3, 4, Author              
Bork, Stephan1, Author
Habel, Ute5, 6, Author
Derntl, Birgit1, 7, 8, 9, Author
Affiliations:
1Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, ou_persistent22              
2Graduate Training Centre of Neuroscience, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, ou_persistent22              
3Minerva Research Group EGG (Emotion & neuroimaGinG) Lab, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_3230775              
4International Max Planck Research School on Neuroscience of Communication: Function, Structure, and Plasticity, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, Leipzig, DE, ou_2616696              
5Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany, ou_persistent22              
6Jülich Aachen Research Alliance - JARA BRAIN, Jülich, Germany, ou_persistent22              
7LEAD Graduate School and Research Network, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, ou_persistent22              
8International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tübingen, Germany, ou_persistent22              
9Tübingen Neuro Campus, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Gender-affirmative healthcare; Healthcare; Internalized homonegativity; Transgender; Transidentity; Transsexualism
 Abstract: People whose gender does not correspond to the binary gender system, i.e., trans∗gender people, face two main problems when it comes to healthcare in Germany: (1) They often suffer from general psychiatric comorbidities as well as specific and significant mental distress due to gender dysphoria, and (2) the German healthcare system lacks sufficiently educated and clinically experienced medical personnel who are able to provide specialized healthcare. Aside from transition, it often is extremely difficult for trans∗gender people to get access to and be integrated into the medical system. Stigmatization and pathologization in treatment are widespread, as are long waiting times for specialized healthcare providers who are often only accessible to those trans∗gender people willing to travel long distances. Frequently, trans∗gender people face further difficulties and barriers after transition, as some healthcare professionals fail to provide suitable care (e.g., gynecological consultation for transmen). The ICD-11 German Modification (ICD-11-GM), which should be routinely used by 2022, implements a depathologization of trans∗gender people in the medical system. This paper compares the issues related to health and healthcare of trans∗gender people in Germany with those in other European countries. We review the care offered by specialized centers with regard to treatment of and support for trans∗gender people. We conclude with specific proposals that may contribute to establish an improved, up-to-date, gender-sensitive healthcare system.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-05-312021-08-112021-09-07
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2021.718335
Other: eCollection 2021
PMID: 34557067
PMC: PMC8452951
 Degree: -

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Project name : -
Grant ID : DE2319/2-4
Funding program : -
Funding organization : German Research Association (DFG)

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Title: Frontiers in Neuroscience
  Other : Front Neurosci
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Lausanne, Switzerland : Frontiers Research Foundation
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 15 Sequence Number: 718335 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1662-4548
ISSN: 1662-453X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/1662-4548