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  Common-red-signal analysis with 24-yr high-precision timing of the European Pulsar Timing Array: Inferences in the stochastic gravitational-wave background search

Chen, S., Caballero, R. N., Guo, Y. J., Chalumeau, A., Liu, K., Shaifullah, G., et al. (2021). Common-red-signal analysis with 24-yr high-precision timing of the European Pulsar Timing Array: Inferences in the stochastic gravitational-wave background search. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 508(4), 4970-4993. doi:10.1093/mnras/stab2833.

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 Creators:
Chen, S., Author
Caballero, R. N., Author
Guo, Y. J., Author
Chalumeau, A., Author
Liu, K., Author
Shaifullah, G., Author
Lee, K. J., Author
Babak, S., Author
Desvignes, G., Author
Parthasarathy, A., Author
Hu, H., Author
van der Wateren, E., Author
Antoniadis, J., Author
Nielsen, A. -S. Bak, Author
Bassa, C. G., Author
Berthereau, A., Author
Burgay, M., Author
Champion, D. J., Author
Cognard, I., Author
Falxa, M., Author
Ferdman, R. D., AuthorFreire, P. C. C., AuthorGair, J.1, Author           Graikou, E., AuthorGuillemot, L., AuthorJang, J., AuthorJanssen, G. H., AuthorKaruppusamy, R., AuthorKeith, M. J., AuthorKramer, M., AuthorLiu, X. J., AuthorLyne, A. G., AuthorMain, R. A., AuthorMcKee, J. W., AuthorMickaliger, M. B., AuthorPerera, B. B. P., AuthorPerrodin, D., AuthorPetiteau, A., AuthorPorayko, N. K., AuthorPossenti, A., AuthorSamajdar, A., AuthorSanidas, S. A., AuthorSesana, A., AuthorSperi, L.1, Author           Stappers, B. W., AuthorTheureau, G., AuthorTiburzi, C., AuthorVecchio, A., AuthorVerbiest, J. P. W., AuthorWang, J., AuthorWang, L., AuthorXu, H., Author more..
Affiliations:
1Astrophysical and Cosmological Relativity, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_1933290              

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Free keywords: Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena, astro-ph.HE,Astrophysics, Cosmology and Extragalactic Astrophysics, astro-ph.CO
 Abstract: We present results from the search for a stochastic gravitational-wave
background (GWB) as predicted by the theory of General Relativity using six
radio millisecond pulsars from the Data Release 2 (DR2) of the European Pulsar
Timing Array (EPTA) covering a timespan up to 24 years. A GWB manifests itself
as a long-term low-frequency stochastic signal common to all pulsars, a common
red signal (CRS), with the characteristic Hellings-Downs (HD) spatial
correlation. Our analysis is performed with two independent pipelines,
\eprise{} and \tn{}+\ftwo{}, which produce consistent results. A search for a
CRS with simultaneous estimation of its spatial correlations yields spectral
properties compatible with theoretical GWB predictions, but does not result in
the required measurement of the HD correlation, as required for GWB detection.
Further Bayesian model comparison between different types of CRSs, including a
GWB, finds the most favoured model to be the common uncorrelated red noise
described by a power-law with $A = 5.13_{-2.73}^{+4.20} \times 10^{-15}$ and
$\gamma = 3.78_{-0.59}^{+0.69}$ (95\% credible regions). Fixing the spectral
index to $\gamma=13/3$ as expected from the GWB by circular, inspiralling
supermassive black-hole binaries results in an amplitude of $A
=2.95_{-0.72}^{+0.89} \times 10^{-15}$. We implement three different models,
BAYESEPHEM, LINIMOSS and EPHEMGP, to address possible Solar-system ephemeris
(SSE) systematics and conclude that our results may only marginally depend on
these effects. This work builds on the methods and models from the studies on
the EPTA DR1. We show that under the same analysis framework the results remain
consistent after the data set extension.

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 Dates: 2021-10-252021
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 25 pages, 10 figures, 7 tables, 2 appendix tables and 1 appendix figure
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: arXiv: 2110.13184
DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stab2833
 Degree: -

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Title: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 508 (4) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 4970 - 4993 Identifier: -