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  INTEGRAL reloaded: Spacecraft, instruments and ground system

Kuulkers, E., Ferrigno, C., Kretschmar, P., Alfonso-Garzón, J., Baab, M., Bazzano, A., et al. (2021). INTEGRAL reloaded: Spacecraft, instruments and ground system. New Astronomy Reviews, 93: 101629. doi:10.1016/j.newar.2021.101629.

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Kuulkers, Erik, Author
Ferrigno, Carlo, Author
Kretschmar, Peter, Author
Alfonso-Garzón, Julia, Author
Baab, Marius, Author
Bazzano, Angela, Author
Bélanger, Guillaume, Author
Benson, Ian, Author
Bird, Antony J., Author
Bozzo, Enrico, Author
Brandt, Søren, Author
Coe, Elliott, Author
Caballero, Isabel, Author
Cangemi, Floriane, Author
Chenevez, Jérôme, Author
Cenko, Bradley, Author
Cinar, Nebil, Author
Coleiro, Alexis, Author
Padova, Stefano De, Author
Diehl, Roland1, Author              
Dietze, Claudia, AuthorDomingo, Albert, AuthorDrapes, Mark, AuthorD’uva, Eleonora, AuthorEhle, Matthias, AuthorEbrero, Jacobo, AuthorEdirimanne, Mithrajith, AuthorEismont, Natan A., AuthorFinn, Timothy, AuthorFiocchi, Mariateresa, AuthorTomas, Elena Garcia, AuthorGaudenzi, Gianluca, AuthorGodard, Thomas, AuthorGoldwurm, Andrea, AuthorGötz, Diego, AuthorGouiffès, Christian, AuthorGrebenev, Sergei A., AuthorGreiner, Jochen1, Author              Gros, Aleksandra, AuthorHajdas, Wojciech, AuthorHanlon, Lorraine, AuthorHermsen, Wim, AuthorHernández, Cristina, AuthorHernanz, Margarita, AuthorHübner, Jutta, AuthorJourdain, Elisabeth, AuthorLa Rosa, Giovanni, AuthorLabanti, Claudio, AuthorLaurent, Philippe, AuthorLehanka, Alexander, AuthorLund, Niels, AuthorMadison, James, AuthorMalzac, Julien, AuthorMartin, Jim, AuthorMas-Hesse, J. Miguel, AuthorMcBreen, Brian, AuthorMcDonald, Alastair, AuthorMcEnery, Julie, AuthorMereghetti, Sandro, AuthorNatalucci, Lorenzo, AuthorNess, Jan-Uwe, AuthorOxborrow, Carol Anne, AuthorPalmer, John, AuthorPeschke, Sibylle, AuthorPetrucciani, Francesco, AuthorPfeil, Norbert, AuthorReichenbaecher, Michael, AuthorRodi, James, AuthorRodriguez, Jérôme, AuthorRoques, Jean-Pierre, AuthorDoñate, Salazar Emilio, AuthorSalt, Dave, AuthorSánchez-Fernández, Celia, AuthorSauvageon, Aymeric, AuthorSavchenko, Volodymyr, AuthorSazonov, Sergey Yu., AuthorScaglioni, Stefano, AuthorSchartel, Norbert, AuthorSiegert, Thomas, AuthorSouthworth, Richard, AuthorSunyaev, Rashid A., AuthorToma, Liviu, AuthorUbertini, Pietro, Authorvan den Heuvel, Edward P.J., AuthorKienlin, Andreas von1, Author              von Krusenstiern, Nikolai, AuthorWinkler, Christoph, AuthorZannoni, Ugo, Author more..
1High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_159890              


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 Abstract: The European Space Agency’s INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (ESA/INTEGRAL) was launched aboard a Proton-DM2 rocket on 17 October 2002 at 06:41 CEST, from Baikonur in Kazakhstan. Since then, INTEGRAL has been providing long, uninterrupted observations (up to about 47hr, or 170ksec, per satellite orbit of 2.7 days) with a large field-of-view (FOV, fully coded: 100 deg2), millisecond time resolution, keV energy resolution, polarization measurements, as well as additional wavelength coverage at optical wavelengths. This is realized by two main instruments in the 15keV to 10MeV energy range, the spectrometer SPI (spectral resolution 3keV at 1.8MeV) and the imager IBIS (angular resolution: 12arcmin FWHM), complemented by X ray (JEM-X; 3–35keV) and optical (OMC; Johnson V-band) monitor instruments. All instruments are co-aligned to simultaneously observe the target region. A particle radiation monitor (IREM) measures charged particle fluxes near the spacecraft. The Anti-coincidence subsystems of the main instruments, built to reduce the background, are also very efficient all-sky γ-ray detectors, which provide virtually omni-directional monitoring above ∼75keV. Besides the long, scheduled observations, INTEGRAL can rapidly (within a couple of hours) re-point and conduct Target of Opportunity (ToO) observations on a large variety of sources. INTEGRAL observations and their scientific results have been building an impressive legacy: The discovery of currently more than 600 new high-energy sources; the first-ever direct detection of 56Ni and 56Co radio-active decay lines from a Type Ia supernova; spectroscopy of isotopes from galactic nucleo-synthesis sources; new insights on enigmatic positron annihilation in the Galactic bulge and disk; and pioneering gamma-ray polarization studies. INTEGRAL is also a successful actor in the new multi-messenger astronomy introduced by non-electromagnetic signals from gravitational waves and from neutrinos: INTEGRAL found the first prompt electromagnetic radiation in coincidence with a binary neutron star merger. Up to now more than 1750 scientific papers based on INTEGRAL data have been published in refereed journals. In this paper, we will give a comprehensive update of the satellite status after more than 18 years of operations in a harsh space environment, and an account of the successful Ground Segment.


Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-12
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.newar.2021.101629
 Degree: -



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Title: New Astronomy Reviews
  Other : New Astron. Rev.
Source Genre: Journal
Publ. Info: -
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 93 Sequence Number: 101629 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1387-6473
ISSN: 1387-6473
ISSN: 1872-9630