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  Impact of reduced emissions on direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing during COVID–19 lockdown in Europe

Reifenberg, S. F., Martin, A., Kohl, M., Hamryszczak, Z., Tadic, I., Röder, L., et al. (2021). Impact of reduced emissions on direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing during COVID–19 lockdown in Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 21. doi:10.5194/acp-2021-1005.

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 Creators:
Reifenberg, Simon Felix1, Author              
Martin, Anna1, Author              
Kohl, Matthias1, Author              
Hamryszczak, Zaneta1, Author              
Tadic, Ivan1, Author              
Röder, Lenard1, Author              
Crowley, Daniel J.1, Author              
Fischer, Horst1, Author              
Kaiser, Katharina2, Author              
Schneider, Johannes2, Author              
Dörich, Raphael1, Author              
Crowley, John N.1, Author              
Tomsche, Laura, Author
Marsing, Andreas, Author
Voigt, Christiane, Author
Zahn, Andreas1, Author              
Pöhlker, Christopher3, Author              
Holanda, Bruna3, Author              
Krüger, Ovid O.3, Author              
Pöschl, Ulrich3, Author              
Pöhlker, Mira3, Author              Jöckel, Patrick, AuthorDorf, Marcel1, Author              Schumann, Ulrich, AuthorWilliams, Jonathan1, Author              Curtius, Joachim, AuthorHarder, Hartwig1, Author              Schlager, Hans, AuthorLelieveld, Jos1, Author              Pozzer, Andrea1, Author               more..
Affiliations:
1Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826285              
2Particle Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826291              
3Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826290              

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 Abstract: Aerosols influence the Earth’s energy balance through direct radiative effects and indirectly by altering the cloud micro-physics. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions dropped considerably when the global COVID–19 pandemic resulted in severe restraints on mobility, production, and public life in spring 2020. Here we assess the effects of these reduced emissions on direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing over Europe, excluding contributions from contrails. We simulate the atmospheric com- position with the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model in a baseline (business as usual) and a reduced emission scenario. The model results are compared to aircraft observations from the BLUESKY aircraft campaign performed in May/June 2020 over Europe. The model agrees well with most of the observations, except for sulfur dioxide, particulate sulfate and nitrate in the upper troposphere, likely due to a somewhat biased representation of stratospheric aerosol chemistry and missing information about volcanic eruptions which could have influenced the campaign. The comparison with a business as usual scenario shows that the largest relative differences for tracers and aerosols are found in the upper troposphere, around the aircraft cruise altitude, due to the reduced aircraft emissions, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface. We also find an increase in shortwave radiation of 0.327 ± 0.105 Wm−2 at the surface in Europe for May 2020, solely attributable to the direct aerosol effect, which is dominated by decreased aerosol scattering of sunlight, followed by reduced aerosol absorption, caused by lower concentrations of inorganic and black carbon aerosols in the troposphere. A further in- crease in shortwave radiation from aerosol indirect effects was found to be much smaller than its variability. Impacts on ice crystal- and cloud droplet number concentrations and effective crystal radii are found to be negligible.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-12-10
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 23
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-1005
 Degree: -

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Title: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions
  Abbreviation : Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 21 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1680-7367
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/111076360006006