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  Challenges of sampling and how phylogenetic comparative methods help: with a case study of the Pama-Nyungan laminal contrast

Macklin-Cordes, J. L., & Round, E. (2022). Challenges of sampling and how phylogenetic comparative methods help: with a case study of the Pama-Nyungan laminal contrast. Linguistic Typology, 2201.00195. doi:10.1515/lingty-2021-0025.

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 Creators:
Macklin-Cordes, Jayden L., Author
Round, Erich1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Linguistic and Cultural Evolution, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074311              

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Free keywords: Phylogenetic comparative methods; Balanced sampling; Genealogy; Phylogenetic autocorrelation; Phylogenetic signal; Genealogically-sensitive averages; Mass comparison; Areality
 Abstract: Phylogenetic comparative methods are new in our field and are shrouded, for most linguists, in at least a little mystery. Yet the path that led to their discovery in comparative biology is so similar to the methodological history of balanced sampling, that it is only an accident of history that they were not discovered by a typologist. Here we clarify the essential logic behind phylogenetic comparative methods and their fundamental relatedness to a deep intellectual tradition focussed on sampling. Then we introduce concepts, methods and tools which will enable typologists to use these methods in everyday typological research. The key commonality of phylogenetic comparative methods and balanced sampling is that they attempt to deal with statistical non-independence due to genealogy. Whereas sampling can never achieve independence and requires most comparative data to be discarded, phylogenetic comparative methods achieve independence while retaining and using all data. We discuss the essential notions of phylogenetic signal; uncertainty about trees; typological averages and proportions that are sensitive to genealogy; comparison across language families; and the effects of areality. Extensive supplementary materials illustrate computational tools for practical analysis and we illustrate the methods discussed with a typological case study of the laminal contrast in Pama-Nyungan

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-02-28
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 40
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: 1 Introduction
2 Phylogenetic autocorrelation: The consequences of relatedness
2.1 Phylogenetic autocorrelation across the sciences
2.2 Phylogenetic autocorrelation in linguistics
2.3 Phylogenetic autocorrelation in comparative biology
2.4 Phylogenetically independent contrasts
2.5 Phylogenetic comparative methods beyond biology
3 Phylogenetic signal: The extent to which synchronic distributions mirror genealogy
3.1 Phylogenetic signal in continuous variables
3.2 Phylogenetic signal in binary variables
4 Approaches to uncertainty in linguistic trees
5 Genealogically-sensitive averages and proportions
6 A phylogenetic comparative case study: Laminal contrasts in Pama-Nyungan
6.1 Phylogenetic signal in the binary laminal contrast
6.2 Phylogenetic signal in continuously-valued phonotactic
variables
6.3 Genealogically-sensitive proportions of languages with a laminal contrast
7 Discussion
7.1 Comparison across families and deep-time genealogy
7.2 Areality
8 Conclusions
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1515/lingty-2021-0025
URN: https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.00195
Other: shh3123
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Title: Linguistic Typology
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: 2201.00195 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1430-0532
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/110978984253496

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