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  Evidence for goal‐ and mixed evidence for false belief‐based action prediction in 2‐ to 4‐year‐old children: A large‐scale longitudinal anticipatory looking replication study

Kaltefleiter, L. J., Schuwerk, T., Grosse Wiesmann, C., Kristen‐Antonow, S., Jarvers, I., & Sodian, B. (2021). Evidence for goal‐ and mixed evidence for false belief‐based action prediction in 2‐ to 4‐year‐old children: A large‐scale longitudinal anticipatory looking replication study. Developmental Science. doi:10.1111/desc.13224.

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 Creators:
Kaltefleiter, Larissa J.1, Author
Schuwerk, Tobias1, Author
Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte2, Author              
Kristen‐Antonow, Susanne1, Author
Jarvers, Irina1, Author
Sodian, Beate1, Author
Affiliations:
1Department of Psychology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Germany, ou_persistent22              
2Department Neuropsychology, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_634551              

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Free keywords: Action prediction; Anticipatory looking; Early childhood; False belief; Replication; Theory of mind
 Abstract: Unsuccessful replication attempts of paradigms assessing children's implicit tracking of false beliefs have instigated the debate on whether or not children have an implicit understanding of false beliefs before the age of four. A novel multi-trial anticipatory looking false belief paradigm yielded evidence of implicit false belief reasoning in 3- to 4-year-old children using a combined score of two false belief conditions (Grosse Wiesmann, C., Friederici, A. D., Singer, T., & Steinbeis, N. [2017]. Developmental Science, 20(5), e12445). The present study is a large-scale replication attempt of this paradigm. The task was administered three times to the same sample of N = 185 children at 2, 3, and 4 years of age. Using the original stimuli, we did not replicate the original finding of above-chance belief-congruent looking in a combined score of two false belief conditions in either of the three age groups. Interestingly, the overall pattern of results was comparable to the original study. Post-hoc analyses revealed, however, that children performed above chance in one false belief condition (FB1) and below chance in the other false belief condition (FB2), thus yielding mixed evidence of children's false belief-based action predictions. Similar to the original study, participants' performance did not change with age and was not related to children's general language skills. This study demonstrates the importance of large-scaled replications and adds to the growing number of research questioning the validity and reliability of anticipatory looking false belief paradigms as a robust measure of children's implicit tracking of beliefs.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-12-27
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1111/desc.13224
Other: online ahead of print
PMID: 34962028
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Grant ID : SO213/33-1
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Funding organization : Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

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Title: Developmental Science
  Other : Dev. Sci.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Oxford, UK : Blackwell
Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1363-755X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/963018343339