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  Differences in executive abilities rather than associative processes contribute to memory development

Müller, N. C. J., Kohn, N., Buuren, M., Klijn, N., Emmen, H., Berkers, R., et al. (2021). Differences in executive abilities rather than associative processes contribute to memory development. Human Brain Mapping, 42(18), 6000-6013. doi:10.1002/hbm.25665.

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 Creators:
Müller, Nils C. J.1, Author
Kohn, Nils1, Author
Buuren, Mariët2, Author
Klijn, Nadia1, Author
Emmen, Helene1, Author
Berkers, Ruud1, 3, Author              
Dresler, Martin1, 4, Author
Janzen, Gabriele1, 5, Author
Fernández, Guillén1, Author
Affiliations:
1Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, ou_persistent22              
2Department of Clinical, Neuro- and Developmental Psychology, Institute for Brain and Behavior Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands, ou_persistent22              
3Max Planck Research Group Adaptive Memory, MPI for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Max Planck Society, ou_2295691              
4Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany, ou_persistent22              
5Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Executive abilities; fMRI; Medial prefrontal cortex; Memory development
 Abstract: Children's learning capabilities change while growing up. One framework that describes the cognitive and neural development of children's growing learning abilities is the two-component model. It distinguishes processes that integrate separate features into a coherent memory representation (associative component) and executive abilities, such as elaboration, evaluation, and monitoring, that support memory processing (strategic component). In an fMRI study using an object-location association paradigm, we investigated how the two components influence memory performance across development. We tested children (10-12 years, n = 31), late adolescents (18 years, n = 29), and adults (25+ years, n = 30). For studying the associative component, we also probed how the utilisation of prior knowledge (schemas) facilitates memory across age groups. Children had overall lower retrieval performance, while adolescents and adults did not differ from each other. All groups benefitted from schemas, but this effect did not differ between groups. Performance differences between groups were associated with deactivation of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), which in turn was linked to executive functioning. These patterns were stronger in adolescents and adults and seemed absent in children. Thus, the children's executive system, the strategic component, is not as mature and thus cannot facilitate memory performance in the same way as in adolescents/adults. In contrast, we did not find age-related differences in the associative component; with activity in the angular gyrus predicting memory performance systematically across groups. Overall, our results suggest that differences of executive rather than associative abilities explain memory differences between children, adolescents, and adults.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-10-122021-12-15
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/hbm.25665
Other: epub 2021
PMID: 34636105
PMC: PMC8596915
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Project name : NWO Research Talent Grant
Grant ID : 406-13-008
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Title: Human Brain Mapping
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: New York : Wiley-Liss
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 42 (18) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 6000 - 6013 Identifier: ISSN: 1065-9471
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925601686