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  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated-, nitro- and oxy-derivatives in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Middle

Wietzoreck, M., Kyprianou, M., Bandowe, B. A. M., Celik, S., Crowley, J. N., Drewnick, F., et al. (2022). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated-, nitro- and oxy-derivatives in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Middle. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 22. doi:10.5194/acp-2022-32.

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Wietzoreck, Marco1, Author              
Kyprianou, Marios, Author
Bandowe, Benjamin A. Musa1, Author              
Celik, Siddika2, Author              
Crowley, John N.3, Author              
Drewnick, Frank2, Author              
Eger, Philipp3, Author              
Friedrich, Nils3, Author              
Iakovides, Minas, Author
Kukučka, Petr, Author
Kuta, Jan, Author
Nežiková, Barbora, Author
Pokorná, Petra, Author
Přibylová, Petra, Author
Prokeš, Roman, Author
Rohloff, Roland3, Author              
Tadic, Ivan3, Author              
Tauer, Sebastian3, Author              
Wilson, Jake1, Author              
Harder, Hartwig3, Author              
Lelieveld, Jos3, Author              Pöschl, Ulrich1, Author              Stephanou, Euripides G., AuthorLammel, Gerhard1, Author               more..
Affiliations:
1Multiphase Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826290              
2Particle Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826291              
3Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_1826285              

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 Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their alkylated (RPAHs), nitrated (NPAHs) and oxygenated (OPAHs) derivatives are air pollutants. Many of these substances are long-lived, can undergo long-range atmospheric transport and adversely affect human health upon exposure. However, the occurrence and fate of these air pollutants has hardly been studied in the marine atmosphere. In this study, we report the atmospheric concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Gulf, determined during the AQABA (Air Quality and Climate Change in the Arabian Basin) project, a comprehensive ship-borne campaign in summer 2017. The average concentrations of ∑27PAHs, ∑19RPAHs, ∑11OPAHs and ∑17NPAHs, in the gas and particulate phase, were 2.85 ± 3.35 ng m−3, 0.83 ± 0.87 ng m−3, 0.24 ± 0.25 ng m−3 and 4.34 ± 7.37 pg m−3, respectively. The Arabian Sea region was the cleanest for all substance classes, with concentrations among the lowest ever reported. Over the Mediterranean Sea, we found the highest average burden of ∑26PAHs and ∑11OPAHs, while the ∑17NPAHs were most abundant over the Arabian Gulf (known also as Persian Gulf). 1,4 Naphthoquinone (1,4-O2NAP) followed by 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant studied OPAHs in most samples. The NPAH composition pattern varied significantly across the regions, with 2 nitronaphthalene (2-NNAP) being the most abundant NPAH. According to source apportionment investigations, the main sources of PAH derivatives in the region were ship exhaust emissions, residual oil combustion and continental pollution. All OPAHs and NPAHs except 2-NFLT, which were frequently detected during the campaign, showed elevated concentrations in fresh shipping emissions. In contrast, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFLT) and 2-nitropyrene (2-NPYR) were highly abundant in aged shipping emissions due to secondary formation. Apart from 2-NFLT and 2-NPYR, also benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione and 1,4-O2NAP had significant photochemical sources. Another finding was that the highest concentrations of PAHs, OPAHs and NPAHs were found in the sub-micrometre fraction of particulate matter (PM1).

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-01-18
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 41
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: No review
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.5194/acp-2022-32
 Degree: -

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Title: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions
  Abbreviation : Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 22 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1680-7367
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/111076360006006