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  Are massive dense clumps truly sub-virial? A new analysis using Gould Belt ammonia data

Singh, A., Matzner, C. D., Friesen, R. K., Martin, P. G., Pineda, J. E., Rosolowsky, E., et al. (2021). Are massive dense clumps truly sub-virial? A new analysis using Gould Belt ammonia data. The Astrophysical Journal, 922(1): 87. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac20d2.

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Singh, Ayushi, Author
Matzner, Christopher D., Author
Friesen, Rachel K., Author
Martin, Peter G., Author
Pineda, Jaime E.1, Author              
Rosolowsky, Erik, Author
Alves, Felipe1, Author              
Chacón-Tanarro, Ana, Author
Chen, Hope How-Huan, Author
Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan, Author
Choudhury, Spandan1, Author              
Francesco, James Di, Author
Keown, Jared, Author
Kirk, Helen, Author
Punanova, Anna, Author
Seo, Youngmin, Author
Shirley, Yancy, Author
Ginsburg, Adam, Author
Offner, Stella S. R., Author
Arce, Héctor G., Author
Caselli, Paola1, Author              Goodman, Alyssa A., AuthorMyers, Philip C., AuthorRedaelli, Elena1, Author               more..
Affiliations:
1Center for Astrochemical Studies at MPE, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_1950287              

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 Abstract: Dynamical studies of dense structures within molecular clouds often conclude that the most massive clumps contain too little kinetic energy for virial equilibrium, unless they are magnetized to an unexpected degree. This raises questions about how such a state might arise, and how it might persist long enough to represent the population of massive clumps. In an effort to reexamine the origins of this conclusion, we use ammonia line data from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey and Planck-calibrated dust emission data from Herschel to estimate the masses and kinetic and gravitational energies for dense clumps in the Gould Belt clouds. We show that several types of systematic error can enhance the appearance of low kinetic-to-gravitational energy ratios: insufficient removal of foreground and background material; ignoring the kinetic energy associated with velocity differences across a resolved cloud; and overcorrecting for stratification when evaluating the gravitational energy. Using an analysis designed to avoid these errors, we find that the most massive Gould Belt clumps harbor virial motions, rather than subvirial ones. As a by-product, we present a catalog of masses, energies, and virial energy ratios for 85 Gould Belt clumps.

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 Dates: 2021-11-23
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ac20d2
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Title: The Astrophysical Journal
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Bristol; Vienna : IOP Publishing; IAEA
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 922 (1) Sequence Number: 87 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0004-637X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954922828215_3