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  Nested Formation of Calcium Carbonate Polymorphs in a Bacterial Surface Membrane with a Graded Nanoconfinement: An Evolutionary Strategy to Ensure Bacterial Survival

Simon, P., Pompe, W., Gruner, D., Sturm, E. V., Ostermann, K., Matys, S., et al. (2022). Nested Formation of Calcium Carbonate Polymorphs in a Bacterial Surface Membrane with a Graded Nanoconfinement: An Evolutionary Strategy to Ensure Bacterial Survival. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 8(2), 526-539. doi:10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c01280.

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 Creators:
Simon, Paul1, Author              
Pompe, Wolfgang2, Author
Gruner, Denise2, Author
Sturm, Elena V.3, Author              
Ostermann, Kai2, Author
Matys, Sabine2, Author
Vogel, Manja2, Author
Roedel, Gerhard2, Author
Affiliations:
1Paul Simon, Chemical Metal Science, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Max Planck Society, ou_1863418              
2External Organizations, ou_persistent22              
3Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Max Planck Society, ou_1863404              

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 Abstract: It is the intention of this study to elucidate the nested formation of calcium carbonate polymorphs or polyamorphs in the different nanosized compartments. With these observations, it can be concluded how the bacteria can survive in a harsh environment with high calcium carbonate supersaturation. The mechanisms of calcium carbonate precipitation at the surface membrane and at the underlying cell wall membrane of the thermophilic soil bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus DSM 13240 have been revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In this Gram-positive bacterium, nanopores in the surface layer (S-layer) and in the supporting cell wall polymers are nucleation sites for metastable calcium carbonate polymorphs and polyamorphs. In order to observe the different metastable forms, various reaction times and a low reaction temperature (4 degrees C) have been chosen. Calcium carbonate polymorphs nucleate in the confinement of nanosized pores ((empty set) 3-5 nm) of the S-layer. The hydrous crystalline calcium carbonate (ikaite) is formed initially with [110] as the favored growth direction. It transforms into the anhydrous metastable vaterite by a solid-state transition. In a following reaction step, calcite is precipitated, caused by dissolution of vaterite in the aqueous solution. In the larger pores of the cell wall ((empty set) 20-50 nm), hydrated amorphous calcium carbonate is grown, which transforms into metastable monohydrocalcite, aragonite, or calcite. Due to the sequence of reaction steps via various metastable phases, the bacteria gain time for chipping the partially mineralized S-layer, and forming a fresh S-layer (characteristic growth time about 20 min). Thus, the bacteria can survive in solutions with high calcium carbonate supersaturation under the conditions of forced biomineralization.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-01-072022-01-07
 Publication Status: Published in print
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Title: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
  Abbreviation : acs biomater. sci. eng.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Washington, DC : American Chemical Society
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 8 (2) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 526 - 539 Identifier: ISSN: 2373-9878
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2373-9878