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  7 tricks for 7 T CEST: improving reproducibility of multi-pool evaluation provides insights into effects of age and early stage Parkinson's disease

Mennecke, A., Khakzar, K., German, A., Herz, K., Fabian, M., Liebert, A., et al. (2022). 7 tricks for 7 T CEST: improving reproducibility of multi-pool evaluation provides insights into effects of age and early stage Parkinson's disease. NMR in Biomedicine, Epub ahead. doi:10.1002/nbm.4717.

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Mennecke, A, Author
Khakzar, KM, Author
German, A, Author
Herz, K1, 2, Author              
Fabian, M, Author
Liebert, A, Author
Blümcke, I, Author
Kasper, B, Author
Nagel, AM, Author
Laun, FB, Author
Schmidt, M, Author
Winkler, J, Author
Dörfler, A, Author
Zaiss, M, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department High-Field Magnetic Resonance, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497796              
2Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Max Planck Society, ou_1497794              

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 Abstract: Objective: To optimize the post-processing pipeline of 7 T chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging for reproducibility. To prove this optimization for the detection of age differences and differences between Parkinson patients versus normal subjects. Methods: The following 7 T CEST MRI experiments were analyzed: Repeated measurements of a healthy subject, subjects of two age cohorts (14 older, 7 younger subjects), and measurements of 12 Parkinson patients. A slab-selective, B+1 -homogeneous parallel transmit protocol was used. The post-processing consisting of motion correction, smoothing, B0 -correction, normalization, denoising, B+1 -correction and Lorentzian fitting was optimized regarding the intra- and inter-subject coefficient of variation (CoV) of the amplitudes of the amide pool and the aliphatic rNOE pool within the brain. Results: Seven 'tricks' for post-processing accomplished an improvement of the mean voxel CoV of the amide pool and the aliphatic rNOE pool amplitudes below 5 % and 3 %, respectively. These post-processing steps are, image-based: 1)motion correction with interpolation of the motion of low-signal-offsets, 2)using the amide pool frequency offset image as reference; Z-spectrum-based, 3)normalization of the Z-spectrum using the outermost saturated measurements, 4) B0 correction of the Z-spectrum with moderate spline smoothing, 5)denoising using principal component analysis preserving the 11 highest intensity-components, 6) B+1 correction using a linear fit, and 7)Lorentzian fitting using the 5-pool fit model. It turns out that that with the optimized post-processing pipeline, a significant age effect in the amide pool can be detected. Additionally, for the first time, an aliphatic rNOE contrast between subjects suffering from Parkinson's disease and age-matched healthy controls in the substantia nigra is detected. Interpretation We propose an optimized post-processing pipeline for CEST multi-pool evaluation. It is shown that by the use of these seven 'tricks', the reproducibility and, thus, the statistical power of a CEST measurement can be greatly improved and subtle changes can be detected.

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 Dates: 2022-02
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1002/nbm.4717
eDoc: e4717
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Title: NMR in Biomedicine
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Heyden & Son
Pages: - Volume / Issue: Epub ahead Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0952-3480
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925574973