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  Turbo-Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (t-PEPSI) MR technique in the detection of diffuse axonal damage in brain injury. Comparison with Gradient-Recalled Echo (GRE) sequence

Giugni, E., Sabatini, U., Hagberg, G., Formisano, R., & Castriota-Scanderbeg, A. (2005). Turbo-Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (t-PEPSI) MR technique in the detection of diffuse axonal damage in brain injury. Comparison with Gradient-Recalled Echo (GRE) sequence. La Radiologia Medica, 109(5-6), 563-572.

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Giugni, E, Author
Sabatini, U, Author
Hagberg, GE1, Author           
Formisano, R, Author
Castriota-Scanderbeg, A, Author
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1External Organizations, ou_persistent22              

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 Abstract: Purpose: Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common type of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, and is frequently accompanied by tissue tear haemorrhage. The T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences are more sensitive than T2-weighted spin-echo images for detection of haemorrhage. This study was undertaken to determine whether turbo-PEPSI, an extremely fast multi-echo-planar-imaging sequence, can be used as an alternative to the GRE sequence for detection of DAI. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients (mean age 24,5 year) with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurred at least 3 months earlier, underwent a brain MRI study on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. A qualitative evaluation of the turbo-PEPSI sequences was performed by identifying the optimal echo time and in-plane resolution. The number and size of DAI lesions, as well as the signal intensity contrast ratio (SI CR), were computed for each set of GRE and turbo-PEPSI images, and divided according to their anatomic location into lobar and/or deep brain. Results: There was no significant difference between GRE and turbo-PEPSI sequences in the total number of DAI lesions detected (283 vs 225 lesions, respectively). The GRE sequence identified a greater number of hypointense lesions in the temporal lobe compared to the t-PEPSI sequence (72 vs 35, p<0.003), while no significant differences were found for the other brain regions. The SI CR was significantly better (i.e. lower) for the turbo-PEPSI than for the GRE sequence (p<0.00001). Conclusions: Owing to its very short scan time and high sensitivity to the haemorrhage foci, the turbo-PEPSI sequence can be used as an alternative to the GRE to assess brain DAI in severe TBI patients, especially if uncooperative and medically unstable.

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 Dates: 2005-06
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Identifiers: PMID: 15973231
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Title: La Radiologia Medica
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 109 (5-6) Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 563 - 572 Identifier: -