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  Mass distribution in the Galactic Center based on interferometric astrometry of multiple stellar orbits

Abuter, R., Aimar, N., Amorim, A., Ball, J., Bauböck, M., Berger, J. P., et al. (2022). Mass distribution in the Galactic Center based on interferometric astrometry of multiple stellar orbits. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 657: L12. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202142465.

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Abuter, R., Author
Aimar, N., Author
Amorim, A., Author
Ball, J., Author
Bauböck, M.1, Author              
Berger, J. P., Author
Bonnet, H., Author
Bourdarot, G.2, Author              
Brandner, W., Author
Cardoso, V., Author
Clénet, Y., Author
Dallilar, Y.1, Author              
Davies, R.1, Author              
de Zeeuw, P. T.1, Author              
Dexter, J.1, Author              
Drescher, A.1, Author              
Eisenhauer, F.1, Author              
Förster Schreiber, N. M.1, Author              
Foschi, A., Author
Garcia, P., Author
Gao, F.1, Author              Gendron, E., AuthorGenzel, R.1, Author              Gillessen, S.1, Author              Habibi, M.1, Author              Haubois, X., AuthorHeißel, G., AuthorHenning, T., AuthorHippler, S., AuthorHorrobin, M., AuthorJochum, L., AuthorJocou, L., AuthorKaufer, A., AuthorKervella, P., AuthorLacour, S., AuthorLapeyrère, V., AuthorLe Bouquin, J.-B., AuthorLéna, P., AuthorLutz, D.1, Author              Ott, T.1, Author              Paumard, T., AuthorPerraut, K., AuthorPerrin, G., AuthorPfuhl, O.1, Author              Rabien, S.1, Author              Shangguan, J.1, Author              Shimizu, T.1, Author              Scheithauer, S., AuthorStadler, J., AuthorStephens, A.W., AuthorStraub, O.1, Author              Straubmeier, C., AuthorSturm, E.1, Author              Tacconi, L. J.1, Author              Tristram, K. R. W., AuthorVincent, F., AuthorFellenberg, S. D. von1, Author              Widmann, F.1, Author              Wieprecht, E.1, Author              Wiezorrek, E.1, Author              Woillez, J., AuthorYazici, S., AuthorYoung, A.1, Author               more..
Affiliations:
1Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_159889              
2MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society, ou_159888              

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 Abstract: Stars orbiting the compact radio source Sgr A* in the Galactic Center serve as precision probes of the gravitational field around the closest massive black hole. In addition to adaptive optics-assisted astrometry (with NACO/VLT) and spectroscopy (with SINFONI/VLT, NIRC2/Keck and GNIRS/Gemini) over three decades, we have obtained 30–100 μas astrometry since 2017 with the four-telescope interferometric beam combiner GRAVITY/VLTI, capable of reaching a sensitivity of mK = 20 when combining data from one night. We present the simultaneous detection of several stars within the diffraction limit of a single telescope, illustrating the power of interferometry in the field. The new data for the stars S2, S29, S38, and S55 yield significant accelerations between March and July 2021, as these stars pass the pericenters of their orbits between 2018 and 2023. This allows for a high-precision determination of the gravitational potential around Sgr A*. Our data are in excellent agreement with general relativity orbits around a single central point mass, M = 4.30 × 106 M, with a precision of about ±0.25%. We improve the significance of our detection of the Schwarzschild precession in the S2 orbit to 7σ. Assuming plausible density profiles, the extended mass component inside the S2 apocenter (≈0.23″ or 2.4 × 104 RS) must be ≲3000  M (1σ), or ≲0.1% of M. Adding the enclosed mass determinations from 13 stars orbiting Sgr A* at larger radii, the innermost radius at which the excess mass beyond Sgr A* is tentatively seen is r ≈ 2.5″ ≥ 10× the apocenter of S2. This is in full harmony with the stellar mass distribution (including stellar-mass black holes) obtained from the spatially resolved luminosity function.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-01-19
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: -
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 Table of Contents: -
 Rev. Type: -
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142465
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Title: Astronomy and Astrophysics
  Other : Astron. Astrophys.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: France : EDP Sciences S A
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 657 Sequence Number: L12 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 1432-0746
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954922828219_1