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  Do self-talk phrases affect behavior in ultimatum games?

Frey, V., De Mulder, H. N. M., Ter Bekke, M., Struiksma, M. E., Van Berkum, J. J. A., & Buskens, V. (2022). Do self-talk phrases affect behavior in ultimatum games? Mind & Society, 21, 89-119. doi:10.1007/s11299-022-00286-8.

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2022
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This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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 Creators:
Frey, Vincenz1, Author
De Mulder, Hannah N. M.2, Author
Ter Bekke, Marlijn3, 4, 5, 6, Author           
Struiksma, Marijn E.7, Author
Van Berkum, Jos J. A.7, Author           
Buskens, Vincent7, Author
Affiliations:
1Groningen University, Groningen, The Netherlands, ou_persistent22              
2Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands, ou_persistent22              
3Communication in Social Interaction, Radboud University Nijmegen, External Organizations, ou_3055481              
4International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society, Nijmegen, NL, ou_1119545              
5Other Research, MPI for Psycholinguistics, Max Planck Society, Nijmegen, NL, ou_55217              
6Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, External Organizations, ou_55236              
7Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, ou_persistent22              

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 Abstract: The current study investigates whether self-talk phrases can influence behavior in Ultimatum Games. In our three self-talk treatments, participants were instructed to tell themselves (i) to keep their own interests in mind, (ii) to also think of the other person, or (iii) to take some time to contemplate their decision. We investigate how such so-called experimenter-determined strategic self-talk phrases affect behavior and emotions in comparison to a control treatment without instructed self-talk. The results demonstrate that other-focused self-talk can nudge proposers towards fair behavior, as offers were higher in this group than in the other conditions. For responders, self-talk tended to increase acceptance rates of unfair offers as compared to the condition without self-talk. This effect is significant for both other-focused and contemplation-inducing self-talk but not for self-focused self-talk. In the self-focused condition, responders were most dissatisfied with unfair offers. These findings suggest that use of self-talk can increase acceptance rates in responders, and that focusing on personal interests can undermine this effect as it negatively impacts the responders’ emotional experience. In sum, our study shows that strategic self-talk interventions can be used to affect behavior in bargaining situations.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 20222022-03-202022
 Publication Status: Published in print
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 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1007/s11299-022-00286-8
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Title: Mind & Society
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: 21 Sequence Number: - Start / End Page: 89 - 119 Identifier: -