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  Distinct mechanisms mediate X chromosome dosage compensation in Anopheles and Drosophila

Keller Valsecchi, C. I., Marois, E., Basilicata, M. F., Georgiev, P., & Akhtar, A. (2021). Distinct mechanisms mediate X chromosome dosage compensation in Anopheles and Drosophila. Life science alliance, 4: e202000996. doi:10.26508/lsa.202000996.

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Keller Valsecchi, Claudia Isabelle1, Author              
Marois, Eric2, Author
Basilicata, M. Felicia1, Author              
Georgiev, Plamen3, Author
Akhtar, Asifa1, Author              
Affiliations:
1Department of Chromatin Regulation, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Max Planck Society, ou_2243643              
2External Organizations, ou_persistent22              
3Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Max Planck Society, ou_2243640              

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 Abstract: Sex chromosomes induce potentially deleterious gene expression imbalances that are frequently corrected by dosage compensation (DC). Three distinct molecular strategies to achieve DC have been previously described in nematodes, fruit flies, and mammals. Is this a consequence of distinct genomes, functional or ecological constraints, or random initial commitment to an evolutionary trajectory? Here, we study DC in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The Anopheles and Drosophila X chromosomes evolved independently but share a high degree of homology. We find that Anopheles achieves DC by a mechanism distinct from the Drosophila MSL complex–histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation pathway. CRISPR knockout of Anopheles msl-2 leads to embryonic lethality in both sexes. Transcriptome analyses indicate that this phenotype is not a consequence of defective X chromosome DC. By immunofluorescence and ChIP, H4K16ac does not preferentially enrich on the male X. Instead, the mosquito MSL pathway regulates conserved developmental genes. We conclude that a novel mechanism confers X chromosome up-regulation in Anopheles. Our findings highlight the pluralism of gene-dosage buffering mechanisms even under similar genomic and functional constraints.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2021-07-15
 Publication Status: Published online
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 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.26508/lsa.202000996
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Title: Life science alliance
  Abbreviation : Life Sci Alliance
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Heidelberg : EMBO Press
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 4 Sequence Number: e202000996 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2575-1077
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2575-1077