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  Emergence and intensification of dairying in the Caucasus and Eurasian steppes

Scott, A., Reinhold, S., Hermes, T., Kalmykov, A. A., Belinskiy, A., Buzhilova, A., et al. (2022). Emergence and intensification of dairying in the Caucasus and Eurasian steppes. Nature Ecology & Evolution, s41559-022-01701-6. doi:10.1038/s41559-022-01701-6.

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(last seen: April 2022)

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 Creators:
Scott, Ashley1, Author              
Reinhold, Sabine, Author
Hermes, Taylor1, Author              
Kalmykov, Alexey A., Author
Belinskiy, Andrey, Author
Buzhilova, Alexandra, Author
Berezina, Natalia, Author
Kantorovich, Anatoliy R., Author
Maslov, Vladimir E., Author
Guliyev, Farhad, Author
Lyonnet, Bertille, Author
Gasimov, Parviz, Author
Jalilov, Bakhtiyar, Author
Eminli, Jeyhun, Author
Iskandarov, Emil, Author
Hammer, Emily, Author
Nugent, Selin E., Author
Hagan, Richard, Author
Majander, Kerttu, Author
Onkamo, Päivi, Author
Nordqvist, Kerkko, AuthorShishlina, Natalia, AuthorKaverzneva, Elena, AuthorKorolev, Arkadiy I., AuthorKhokhlov, Aleksandr A., AuthorSmolyaninov, Roman V., AuthorSharapova, Svetlana V., AuthorKrause, Rüdiger, AuthorKarapetian, Marina, AuthorStolarczyk, Eliza, AuthorKrause, Johannes1, 2, Author              Hansen, Svend, AuthorHaak, Wolfgang1, Author              Warinner, Christina1, 3, Author               more..
Affiliations:
1Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074310              
2MHAAM, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2541699              
3Kostbare Kulturen, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2591692              

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Free keywords: Archaeology, Biological anthropology
 Abstract: Archaeological and archaeogenetic evidence points to the Pontic–Caspian steppe zone between the Caucasus and the Black Sea as the crucible from which the earliest steppe pastoralist societies arose and spread, ultimately influencing populations from Europe to Inner Asia. However, little is known about their economic foundations and the factors that may have contributed to their extensive mobility. Here, we investigate dietary proteins within the dental calculus proteomes of 45 individuals spanning the Neolithic to Greco-Roman periods in the Pontic–Caspian Steppe and neighbouring South Caucasus, Oka–Volga–Don and East Urals regions. We find that sheep dairying accompanies the earliest forms of Eneolithic pastoralism in the North Caucasus. During the fourth millennium bc, Maykop and early Yamnaya populations also focused dairying exclusively on sheep while reserving cattle for traction and other purposes. We observe a breakdown in livestock specialization and an economic diversification of dairy herds coinciding with aridification during the subsequent late Yamnaya and North Caucasus Culture phases, followed by severe climate deterioration during the Catacomb and Lola periods. The need for additional pastures to support these herds may have driven the heightened mobility of the Middle and Late Bronze Age periods. Following a hiatus of more than 500 years, the North Caucasian steppe was repopulated by Early Iron Age societies with a broad mobile dairy economy, including a new focus on horse milking.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-04-07
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 13
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Results
- North Caucasus.
- South Caucasus.
- Oka–Volga–Don region.
- East Urals region.
Discussion
- Eneolithic populations practiced dairy pastoralism.
- Maykop and Steppe Maykop dairy focused on sheep not cattle.
- Dairy livestock diversified during Middle Bronze Age.
- Post-Bronze Age adoption of horse milking.
- Macroregional perspectives on the spread of dairying.
Conclusion
Methods
- Sampling.
- Radiocarbon dating.
- Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and data analysis.
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1038/s41559-022-01701-6
Other: shh3192
 Degree: -

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Title: Nature Ecology & Evolution
  Abbreviation : Nat. Ecol. Evol.
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Nature Publishing Group
Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: s41559-022-01701-6 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2397-334X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2397-334X