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  Indo-European loanwords and exchange in Bronze Age Central and East Asia

Bjorn, R. (2022). Indo-European loanwords and exchange in Bronze Age Central and East Asia. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 2022.16. doi:10.1017/ehs.2022.16.

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 Creators:
Bjorn, Rasmus1, Author              
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1Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074312              

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 Abstract: Loanword analysis is a unique contribution of historical linguistics to our understanding of prehistoric cultural interfaces. As language reflects the lives of its speakers, the substantiation of loanwords draws on the composite evidence from linguistic as well as auxiliary data from archaeology and genetics through triangulation. The Bronze Age of Central Asia is in principle linguistically mute, but a host of recent independent observations that tie languages, cultures, and genetics together in various ways invites a comprehensive reassessment of six highly diagnostic loanwords (‘seven’, ‘name/fame’, ‘sister-in-law’, ‘honey’, ‘metal’, and ‘horse’), that are associated with the Bronze Age. Moreover, they are shared between Indo-European, Uralic, Turkic, and sometimes Old Chinese. The successful identification of the interfaces for these loanwords can help settle longstanding debates on languages, migrations, and the items themselves. Each item is analyzed using the comparative method with reference to the archaeological record to assess the plausibility of a transfer. I argue that the six items can be dated to have entered Central and East Asian languages from immigrant Indo-European languages spoken in the Afanasievo and Andronovo cultures, including a novel source for the ‘horse’ in Old Chinese.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-04-22
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 41
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Introduction
- Uralic
- Turkic and wider Transeurasian
- Chinese and wider Sino-Tibetan
- Indo-European languages in ancient Central Asia
- Indirectly documented languages
- The early archaeological cultures: Afanasievo and Okunevo
- Structure of the argument
Method
- The comparative method
- Loanwords
- Data triangulation
- Methodological protocol
Data and results
- Seven
- Name and fame
- Honey
Discussion
- Seven
- Name-fame
- Sister-in-law
- Honey
- Gold, copper, bronze
- Horse (and chariot)
- The origin of the Tocharian languages
Conclusion
 Rev. Type: No review
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1017/ehs.2022.16
Other: shh3207
 Degree: -

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Title: Evolutionary Human Sciences
Source Genre: Journal
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Pages: - Volume / Issue: - Sequence Number: 2022.16 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 2513-843X
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/2513-843X