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  Ancient DNA gives new insights into a Norman Neolithic monumental cemetery dedicated to male elites

Rivollat, M., Thomas, A., Ghesquieree, E., Rohrlach, A. B., Späth, E., Pemonge, M.-H., et al. (2022). Ancient DNA gives new insights into a Norman Neolithic monumental cemetery dedicated to male elites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(18): e2120786119. doi:10.1073/pnas.2120786119.

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Wide-genome data (Supplementary material)
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Wide-genome data have been deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA, accession no. PRJEB51061).

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 Creators:
Rivollat, Maïté1, Author              
Thomas, Aline, Author
Ghesquieree, Emmanuel, Author
Rohrlach, Adam Ben1, Author              
Späth, Ellen1, Author              
Pemonge, Marie-Helene, Author
Haak, Wolfgang1, Author              
Chambond, Philippe, Author
Deguillouxa, Marie-France, Author
Affiliations:
1Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074310              

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Free keywords: monumental graves, Middle Neolithic, ancient DNA, Normandy, patrilineality
 Abstract: The Middle Neolithic in western Europe is characterized by monumental funerary structures, known as megaliths, along the Atlantic façade. The first manifestations of this phenomenon occurred in modern-day France with the long mounds of the Cerny culture. Here, we present genome-wide data from the fifth-millennium BCE site of Fleury-sur-Orne in Normandy (France), famous for its impressively long monuments built for selected individuals. The site encompasses 32 monuments of variable sizes, containing the burials of 19 individuals from the Neolithic period. To address who was buried at the site, we generated genome-wide data for 14 individuals, of whom 13 are males, completing previously published data [M. Rivollat et al., Sci. Adv. 6, eaaz5344 (2020)]. Population genetic and Y chromosome analyses show that the Fleury-sur-Orne group fits within western European Neolithic genetic diversity and that the arrival of a new group is detected after 4,000 calibrated BCE. The results of analyzing uniparentally inherited markers and an overall low number of long runs of homozygosity suggest a patrilineal group practicing female exogamy. We find two pairs of individuals to be father and son, buried together in the same monument/grave. No other biological relationship can link monuments together, suggesting that each monument was dedicated to a genetically independent lineage. The combined data and documented father–son line of descent suggest a male-mediated transmission of sociopolitical authority. However, a single female buried with an arrowhead, otherwise considered a symbol of power of the male elite of the Cerny culture, questions a strictly biological sex bias in the burial rites of this otherwise “masculine” monumental cemetery.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-04-21
 Publication Status: Published online
 Pages: 9
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: Data Overview
Genetic Identity, Demographic History
Genetic Relatedness, Spatial Organization, and Social Inferences
Concluding Remarks
Materials and Methods
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2120786119
Other: shh3213
 Degree: -

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Project name : PALEoRIDER
Grant ID : 771234
Funding program : Horizon 2020 (H2020)
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)

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Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  Other : PNAS
  Other : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA
  Abbreviation : Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
Source Genre: Journal
 Creator(s):
Affiliations:
Publ. Info: Washington, D.C. : National Academy of Sciences
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 119 (18) Sequence Number: e2120786119 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0027-8424
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925427230