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  The source of the Black Death in fourteenth-century central Eurasia

Spyrou, M. A., Musralina, L., Gnecchi Ruscone, G. A., Kocher, A., Borbone, P.-G., Khartanovich, V. I., et al. (2022). The source of the Black Death in fourteenth-century central Eurasia. Nature, 606(7915): s41586-022-04800-3, pp. 718-724. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-04800-3.

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Supplementary Sections 1–4 and References (Supplementary material)
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 Creators:
Spyrou, Maria A.1, Author           
Musralina, Lyazzat1, Author           
Gnecchi Ruscone, Guido Alberto1, Author           
Kocher, Arthur, Author           
Borbone, Pier-Giorgio, Author
Khartanovich, Valeri I., Author
Buzhilova, Alexandra, Author
Djansugurova, Leyla, Author
Bos, Kirsten I.1, Author           
Kühnert, Denise, Author           
Haak, Wolfgang1, Author           
Slavin, Philip, Author
Krause, Johannes1, Author           
Affiliations:
1Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Max Planck Society, ou_2074310              

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Free keywords: Archaeology, Evolutionary genetics, Pathogens
 Abstract: The origin of the medieval Black Death pandemic (ad 1346–1353) has been a topic of continuous investigation because of the pandemic’s extensive demographic impact and long-lasting consequences1,2. Until now, the most debated archaeological evidence potentially associated with the pandemic’s initiation derives from cemeteries located near Lake Issyk-Kul of modern-day Kyrgyzstan1,3–9. These sites are thought to have housed victims of a fourteenth-century epidemic as tombstone inscriptions directly dated to 1338–1339 state ‘pestilence’ as the cause of death for the buried individuals9. Here we report ancient DNA data from seven individuals exhumed from two of these cemeteries, Kara-Djigach and Burana. Our synthesis of archaeological, historical and ancient genomic data shows a clear involvement of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in this epidemic event. Two reconstructed ancient Y. pestis genomes represent a single strain and are identified as the most recent common ancestor of a major diversification commonly associated with the pandemic’s emergence, here dated to the first half of the fourteenth century. Comparisons with present-day diversity from Y. pestis reservoirs in the extended Tian Shan region support a local emergence of the recovered ancient strain. Through multiple lines of evidence, our data support an early fourteenth-century source of the second plague pandemic in central Eurasia.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-06-232022-06-15
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: 20
 Publishing info: -
 Table of Contents: A fourteenth-century epidemic in central Eurasia
Ancient pathogen DNA screening
The ancestor of a fourteenth-century polytomy
Divergence time for the branch 1–4 polytomy
Plague reservoirs in the Tian Shan area
 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04800-3
Other: shh3237
 Degree: -

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Project name : PALEoRIDER
Grant ID : 771234
Funding program : Horizon 2020 (H2020)
Funding organization : European Commission (EC)

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Title: Nature
  Abbreviation : Nature
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: London : Nature Publishing Group
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 606 (7915) Sequence Number: s41586-022-04800-3 Start / End Page: 718 - 724 Identifier: ISSN: 0028-0836
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925427238