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  The effect of secondary electrons on radiolysis as observed by in liquid TEM: The role of window material and electrical bias

Bultema, L., Bücker, R., Schulz, E.-C., Tellkamp, F., Gonschior, J., Miller, R. J. D., et al. (2022). The effect of secondary electrons on radiolysis as observed by in liquid TEM: The role of window material and electrical bias. Ultramicroscopy, 240: 113579. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2022.113579.

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1-s2.0-S0304399122001097-main.pdf (Publisher version), 6MB
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ScienceDirect_files_11Jul2022_09-07-12.883.zip (Supplementary material), 16MB
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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2022.113579 (Publisher version)
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 Creators:
Bultema, L.1, Author           
Bücker, R.2, Author
Schulz, E.-C.1, 3, Author           
Tellkamp, F.4, Author           
Gonschior, J.1, Author           
Miller, R. J. D.5, Author
Kassier, G.1, Author           
Affiliations:
1Miller Group, Atomically Resolved Dynamics Department, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society, ou_1938288              
2Centre for Structural Systems Biology, Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, ou_persistent22              
3Universität Hamburg, HARBOR, ou_persistent22              
4Machine Physics, Scientific Service Units, Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Max Planck Society, ou_2074322              
5Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Toronto, ou_persistent22              

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Free keywords: Liquid TEM, Au nanoparticle growth, Secondary electrons, Formvar, Carbon, Si3N4
 Abstract: The effect of window material on electron beam induced phenomena in liquid phase electron microscopy (LPEM) is an interesting yet under-explored subject. We have studied the differences of electron beam induced gold nanoparticle (AuNP) growth subject to three encapsulation materials: Silicon Nitride (Si3N4), carbon and formvar. We find Si3N4 liquid cells (LCs) to result in significantly higher AuNP growth yield as compared to LCs employing the other two materials. In all cases, an electrical bias of the entire LC structures significantly affected particle growth. We demonstrate an inverse correlation of the AuNP growth rate with secondary electron (SE) emission from the windows. We attribute these differences at least in part to variations in SE emission dynamics, which is seen as a combination of material and bias dependent SE escape flux (SEEF) and SE return flux (SERF). Furthermore, our model predictions qualitatively match electrochemistry expectations.

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Language(s): eng - English
 Dates: 2022-06-172022-03-102022-06-212022-06-222022-10
 Publication Status: Published in print
 Pages: -
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 Rev. Type: Peer
 Identifiers: DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2022.113579
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Title: Ultramicroscopy
  Abbreviation : Ultramicroscopy
Source Genre: Journal
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Publ. Info: Amsterdam : North-Holland
Pages: - Volume / Issue: 240 Sequence Number: 113579 Start / End Page: - Identifier: ISSN: 0304-3991
CoNE: https://pure.mpg.de/cone/journals/resource/954925512451