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Journal Article

Masses and luminosities of O- and B-type stars and red supergiants


Schutz,  B. F.
Astrophysical Relativity, AEI-Golm, MPI for Gravitational Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Hohle, M. M., Neuhäuser, R., & Schutz, B. F. (2010). Masses and luminosities of O- and B-type stars and red supergiants. Astronomische Nachrichten, 331(4), 349-360. doi:10.1002/asna.200911355.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0012-2431-E
Massive stars are of interest as progenitors of supernovae, i.e. neutron stars and black holes, which can be sources of gravitational waves. Recent population synthesis models can predict neutron star and gravitational wave observations but deal with a fixed supernova rate or an assumed initial mass function for the population of massive stars. Here we investigate those massive stars, which are supernova progenitors, i.e. with O- and early B-type stars, and also all supergiants within 3 kpc. We restrict our sample to those massive stars detected both in 2MASS and observed by Hipparcos, i.e. only those stars with parallax and precise photometry. To determine the luminosities we calculated the extinctions from published multi-colour photometry, spectral types, luminosity class, all corrected for multiplicity and recently revised Hipparcos distances. We use luminosities and temperatures to estimate the masses and ages of these stars using different models from different authors. Having estimated the luminosities of all our stars within 3 kpc, in particular for all O- and early B-type stars, we have determined the median and mean luminosities for all spectral types for luminosity classes I, III, and V. Our luminosity values for supergiants deviate from earlier results: Previous work generally overestimates distances and luminosities compared to our data, this is likely due to Hipparcos parallaxes (generally more accurate and larger than previous ground-based data) and the fact that many massive stars have recently been resolved into multiples of lower masses and luminosities. From luminosities and effective temperatures we derived masses and ages using mass tracks and isochrones from different authors. From masses and ages we estimated lifetimes and derived a lower limit for the supernova rate of ≈20 events/Myr averaged over the next 10 Myr within 600 pc from the sun. These data are then used to search for areas in the sky with higher likelihood for a supernova or gravitational wave event (like OB associations) (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)