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Book Chapter

Shapes and patterns of wingpad development in the Plecoptera


Zwick,  Peter
Limnological River Station Schlitz, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Zwick, P. (2003). Shapes and patterns of wingpad development in the Plecoptera. In E. Gaino (Ed.), Research Update on Ephemeroptera & Plecoptera (pp. 477-483). Perugia/Italy: University of Perugia.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000F-C7D8-3
Wing development in Plecoptera was expressed by a wing index: wingpad length/head width. Wingpads develop in the last three larval instars which each extend over a large size range. Characteristic shapes permitting accurate instar identification in life history and ecological studies are illustrated. Instar distinction fails in the broad-bodied Perlidae and Peltoperlidae. Only the lasat instar of Pteronarcys (Pteronarcyidae) is dinstinct, probably because of flexible moulting during the long life cycle. Wingpads are separated from the notum by folds or notches, except in Peltoperlidae and in Perloidea where wingpads are partly to entirely fused to the notum, apparently convergently.