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Is postembryonic development in the copepod Temora stylifera negatively affected by diatom diets?

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Carotenuto,  Ylenia
Department Ecophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Carotenuto, Y., Ianora, A., Buttino, I., Romano, G., & Miralto, A. (2002). Is postembryonic development in the copepod Temora stylifera negatively affected by diatom diets? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 276(1-2), 49-66.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000F-DCEB-E
Abstract
Diatoms are major components of the marine microalgae and are generally considered to be the principal food source for small pelagic crustaceans such as copepods. Recently, some species of this algal class have been shown to produce abortifacient compounds (aldehydes) that block copepod embryogenesis, thereby acting as a form of birth control for predatory copepods. To test if diatoms also have deleterious effects on postembryonic development, several diatom species were used to rear larval stages of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera to adulthood. Our results show that T stylifera was only able to complete development from hatching to adulthood when reared with the flagellates Isochrysis galbana and the dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum and Oxyrrhis marina. The daily development and mortality rates observed were in the range of those reported from previous studies on T stylifera (0.68-0.82 stage/day and 9.9-12.4%/day, respectively). In contrast, larvae reared on the diatoms Thalassiosira rotula, Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum were unable to complete development to adulthood and died without passing the naupliar phase or during the early copepodite stages. Daily mortality rates were higher than for nondiatom species (20.3-35.5%/day). Inhibitory effects on growth were not correlated to cell size of the algae. Final survivorship of larvae fed P. minimum and L galbana significantly improved (70-80%) when larvae were generated from females preconditioned with P. minimum for 24 h. The same treatment had no beneficial effect on larvae fed with T rotula or S. costatum, which died again before the adult stage. Although larvae completed development in one replicate with T rotula and final survivorship improved to 34% (compared to 7% in nauplii from nonconditioned females), this value was, in any case, lower than with nondiatom diets. No morphological aberrations were found in larvae fed on diatoms, even though they were unable to complete their life cycle and died for unknown reasons. By contrast, nauplii produced by females fed the diatom T rotula for 7 days showed strong congenital defects such as asymmetrical bodies and reduced number of feeding appendages. Our results suggest that diatoms, which have already been shown to have deleterious effects on copepod embryonic development, may also have insidious effects on larval growth of this copepod species. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.