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Book Chapter

Graphite-Metal Compounds

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Csuk, R., Glänzer, B. I., & Fürstner, A. (1988). Graphite-Metal Compounds. In F. G. A. Stone, & R. West (Eds.), Advances in Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 28 (pp. 85-137). San Diego: Academic Press.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-2572-E
This chapter discusses the most recent and important developments in the field of graphite and the structural properties and use of these compounds in organic and organometallic chemistry. Graphite has a lamellar structure, with an interlayer distance of 0.335 nm. Besides the large number of reagents that can be intercalated, a number of different types of graphites are used. The most commonly used potassium–graphite intercalation compound, C8K, shows an interlayer distance of 5.34 Å, and all carbon layers are separated by a layer of K. Differences among the alkali metals in behavior toward graphite have been explained in terms of electron transfer. Pure yellow, first-stage compounds of Ba and Sr with graphite were prepared by the direct action of metal vapor on graphite in metallic tubes sealed under vacuum. C8K in toluene, benzene, or isopropylbenzene can act as an alkylation catalyst in the presence of ethylene to yield the corresponding nuclear and side chain-alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons. Graphite intercalation compounds can act as mild anionic polymerization initiators offering some benefits in comparison to analogous reactions in homogeneous medium or to metal dispersions.