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Journal Article

Surface microstructure of cis thin films produced by rapid thermal processing

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Riedl, W., Rimmasch, J., Probst, V., Karg, F., & Guckenberger, R. (1994). Surface microstructure of cis thin films produced by rapid thermal processing. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 35(1-4), 129-139.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0010-7379-4
The surfaces of polycrystalline CuInSe2 thin films produced by rapid thermal processing (RTP) have been analyzed by scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy in ambient air. Deviating from standard measurement techniques the tunnelling microscope is driven by an AC sample voltage for surface morphology mapping in the constant current mode. Additionally, a Fermi energy mapping of the semiconductor surface is performed by mapping significant features of the I-V tunnelling characteristic. The polarity of the tunnelling current proves to be a reliable measure of the conductivity type of the material (n- or p-type); the observation of leakage currents at small bias voltages allows the identification of gap states around the Fermi level or metallic phases. Current-voltage curves taken at positions of different conduction type verify the spectroscopic information in the maps. Typical areas imaged are (1.5 mu m)(2). Intra- and inter-granular nonuniformities of the conduction type are observed. Although the bulk material of all samples investigated is p-conductive, abrupt changes of the conductivity type of the surfaces from p- to n-type are observed as a function of the overall copper-to-indium ratio. The dominant current flow direction in slightly Cu-rich thin film hulk material is associated with p-type conduction, whereas In-rich samples exhibit largely n-type conductivity at the surface. Surfaces of copper-rich hulk materials show Fermi level pinning. The spectroscopic results do not depend on material and geometry of the tunnelling tip. [References: 10]