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Ultra-efficient ionization of heavy atoms by intense X-ray free-electron laser pulses

MPS-Authors

Rudek,  Benedikt
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);

Epp,  S.
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);

Erk,  Benjamin
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);

Andritschke,  Robert
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

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Filsinger,  Frank
Molecular Physics, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society;

Hauser,  Günter
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor;

Herrmann,  Sven
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

Hömke,  André
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);

Kaiser,  Christian
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

Kühnel,  Kai-Uwe
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

Miesner ,  Danilo
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

Moshammer,  Robert
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);

Schaller,  Gerhard
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

Schmidt,  Carlo
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);

Schopper,  Florian
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;

Schröter,  Claus-Dieter
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;

Weidenspointner,  Georg
High Energy Astrophysics, MPI for Extraterrestrial Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor;

Ullrich,  Joachim
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt;

Rudenko,  Artem
Division Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Ullrich, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society;
Max Planck Advanced Study Group at Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL);
J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University;

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Citation

Rudek, B., Son, S.-K., Foucar, L., Epp, S., Erk, B., Hartmann, R., et al. (2012). Ultra-efficient ionization of heavy atoms by intense X-ray free-electron laser pulses. Nature Photonics, 6(12), 858-865. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2012.261.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-000E-7847-9
Abstract
X-ray free-electron lasers provide unique opportunities for exploring ultrafast dynamics and for imaging the structures of complex systems. Understanding the response of individual atoms to intense X-rays is essential for most free-electron laser applications. First experiments have shown that, for light atoms, the dominant interaction mechanism is ionization by sequential electron ejection, where the highest charge state produced is defined by the last ionic state that can be ionized with one photon. Here, we report an unprecedentedly high degree of ionization of xenon atoms by 1.5 keV free-electron laser pulses to charge states with ionization energies far exceeding the photon energy. Comparing ion charge-state distributions and fluorescence spectra with state-of-the-art calculations, we find that these surprisingly high charge states are created via excitation of transient resonances in highly charged ions, and predict resonance enhanced absorption to be a general phenomenon in the interaction of intense X-rays with systems containing high-Z constituents.