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Journal Article

Modeling Human Multimodal Perception and Control Using Genetic Maximum Likelihood Estimation

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Zaal, P., Pool, D., Chu, Q., van Paassen, M., Mulder, M., & Mulder, J. (2009). Modeling Human Multimodal Perception and Control Using Genetic Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 32(4), 1089-1099. doi:10.2514/1.42843.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-C363-2
This paper presents a new method for estimating the parameters of multichannel pilot models that is based on
maximum likelihood estimation. To cope with the inherent nonlinearity of this optimization problem, the gradientbased
Gauss–Newton algorithm commonly used to optimize the likelihood function in terms of output error is
complemented with a genetic algorithm. This significantly increases the probability of finding the global optimum of
the optimization problem. The genetic maximum likelihood method is successfully applied to data from a recent
human-in-the-loop experiment. Accurate estimates of the pilot model parameters and the remnant characteristics
are obtained. Multiple simulations with increasing levels of pilot remnant are performed, using the set of parameters
found from the experimental data, to investigate how the accuracy of the parameter estimate is affected by increasing
remnant. It is shown that the bias in the parameter estimates is only substantial for very high levels of pilot remnant.
Some adjustments to the maximum likelihood method are proposed to reduce this bias.