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Journal Article

Integration of depth modules: stereo and shading

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Bülthoff, H., & Mallot, H. (1988). Integration of depth modules: stereo and shading. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 5(10), 1749-1758. doi:10.1364/JOSAA.5.001749.

Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0013-EF3B-D
We studied the integration of image disparities, edge information, and shading in the three-dimensional perception of complex yet well-controlled images generated with a computer-graphics system. The images showed end-on views of flat- and smooth-shaded ellipsoids, i.e., images with and without intensity discontinuities (edges). A map of perceived depth was measured by adjusting a small stereo depth probe interactively to the perceived surface. Our data show that disparate shading (even in the absence of disparate edges) yields a vivid stereoscopic depth perception. The perceived depth is significantly reduced if the disparities are completely removed (shape-from-shading). If edge information is available, it overrides both shape-from-shading and disparate shading. Degradations of depth perception corresponded to a reduced depth rather than to an increased scatter in the depth measurement. The results are compared with computer-vision algorithms for both single cues and their integration for three-dimensional vision.