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Analysis of Magnetosome Chains in Magnetotactic Bacteria by Magnetic Measurements and Automated Image Analysis of Electron Micrographs

MPG-Autoren
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Katzmann,  E.
Baumeister, Wolfgang / Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Plitzko,  J. M.
Baumeister, Wolfgang / Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Zitation

Katzmann, E., Eibauer, M., Lin, W., Pan, Y., Plitzko, J. M., & Schüler, D. (2013). Analysis of Magnetosome Chains in Magnetotactic Bacteria by Magnetic Measurements and Automated Image Analysis of Electron Micrographs. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 79(24), 7755-7762. doi:10.1128/AEM.02143-13.


Zitierlink: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0014-D178-0
Zusammenfassung
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) align along the Earth's magnetic field by the activity of intracellular magnetosomes, which are membrane-enveloped magnetite or greigite particles that are assembled into well-ordered chains. Formation of magnetosome chains was found to be controlled by a set of specific proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and other MTB. However, the contribution of abiotic factors on magnetosome chain assembly has not been fully explored. Here, we first analyzed the effect of growth conditions on magnetosome chain formation in M. gryphiswaldense by electron microscopy. Whereas higher temperatures (30 to 35 degrees C) and high oxygen concentrations caused increasingly disordered chains and smaller magnetite crystals, growth at 20 degrees C and anoxic conditions resulted in long chains with mature cuboctahedron-shaped crystals. In order to analyze the magnetosome chain in electron microscopy data sets in a more quantitative and unbiased manner, we developed a computerized image analysis algorithm. The collected data comprised the cell dimensions and particle size and number as well as the intracellular position and extension of the magnetosome chain. The chain analysis program (CHAP) was used to evaluate the effects of the genetic and growth conditions on magnetosome chain formation. This was compared and correlated to data obtained from bulk magnetic measurements of wild-type (WT) and mutant cells displaying different chain configurations. These techniques were used to differentiate mutants due to magnetosome chain defects on a bulk scale.