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Many-Body Effects in Rydberg Gases : Coherent Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Two-Level Atoms and Nonlinear Optical Response of a Rydberg Gas in EIT Conguration

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Gärttner,  Martin
Division Prof. Dr. Christoph H. Keitel, MPI for Nuclear Physics, Max Planck Society,;

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Citation

Gärttner, M. (2013). Many-Body Effects in Rydberg Gases: Coherent Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Two-Level Atoms and Nonlinear Optical Response of a Rydberg Gas in EIT Conguration. PhD Thesis, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0015-0CA0-1
Abstract
Subject of this thesis is the theoretical investigation of ensembles of atoms that are coherently laser-excited to a Rydberg state. Rydberg excited atoms interact with each other over large distances, which leads to strongly correlated many-body dynamics, demanding powerful numerical tools for their modeling. The first part of the thesis deals with effective two-level atoms consisting of a ground and a Rydberg state only. For resonant laser excitation a modified scaling behavior of the excitation number is observed, which is caused by effects of finite system size and coarse graining of the medium due to the finite atomic density. For off-resonant excitation, ordered structures arise out of an initially homogeneous gas, which are reected in strongly peaked spatial correlations and modified excitation statistics. In the second part a fast decaying intermediate level is additionally taken into account. In this situation the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is encountered. This effect is suppressed in the presence of strong interactions between the Rydberg atoms leading to an optical nonlinearity. A model predicting the properties of a cloud of Rydberg atoms in EIT configuration is developed. In both parts the models are validated by comparing their predictions to recent experimental observations.