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Quantifying the transport of subcloud layer reactants by shallow cumulus clouds over the Amazon

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Ouwersloot,  H. G.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Lelieveld,  J.
Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Citation

Ouwersloot, H. G., Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J., van Stratum, B. J. H., Krol, M. C., & Lelieveld, J. (2013). Quantifying the transport of subcloud layer reactants by shallow cumulus clouds over the Amazon. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118(23), 13041-13059.


Cite as: http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0015-8996-B
Abstract
We investigate the vertical transport of atmospheric chemical reactants from the subcloud layer to the cumulus cloud layer driven by shallow convection over the Amazon during the dry season. The dynamical and chemical assumptions needed for mesoscale and global chemistry transport model parametrizations are systematically analyzed using a Large Eddy Simulation model. We quantify the mass flux transport contribution to the temporal evolution of reactants. Isoprene, a key atmospheric compound over the tropical rain forest, decreases by 8.5% h(-1) on average and 15% h(-1) at maximum due to massfluxinduced removal. We apply mass flux parametrizations for the transport of chemical reactants and obtain satisfactory agreement with numerically resolved transport, except for some reactants like O-3, NO, and NO2. The latter is caused by the local partitioning of reactants, influenced by UV radiation extinction by clouds and smallscale variability of ambient atmospheric compounds. By considering the longerlived NOx (NO + NO2), the transport is well represented by the parametrization. Finally, by considering heterogeneous surface exchange conditions, it is demonstrated that the parametrizations are sensitive to boundary conditions due to changes in the boundary layer dynamics.