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Journal Article

Can observed randomness be certified to be fully intrinsic?


Dhara,  Chirag
Research Group Biospheric Theory and Modelling, Dr. A. Kleidon, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Society;

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Dhara, C., de la Torre, G., & Acin, A. (2014). Can observed randomness be certified to be fully intrinsic? Physical Review Letters, 112, 100402-1-100402-5. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.100402.

Cite as: https://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0018-FE94-5
In general, any observed random process includes two qualitatively different forms of randomness:
apparent randomness, which results both from ignorance or lack of control of degrees of freedom in the
system, and intrinsic randomness, which is not ascribable to any such cause. While classical systems only
possess the first kind of randomness, quantum systems may exhibit some intrinsic randomness. In this
Letter, we provide quantum processes in which all the observed randomness is fully intrinsic. These results
are derived under minimal assumptions: the validity of the no-signaling principle and an arbitrary (but not
absolute) lack of freedom of choice. Our results prove that quantum predictions cannot be completed
already in simple finite scenarios, for instance of three parties performing two dichotomic measurements.
Moreover, the observed randomness tends to a perfect random bit when increasing the number of parties, thus, defining an explicit process attaining full randomness amplification.